Tag Archives: Israel

Elisha & Deadly Gourd Stew

Bible Reference: 2 Kings 4:38-41.

Elisha was a prophet in the Northern Kingdom between 848-797 B.C.; his name means “God is Spirit.”  Elisha was a disciple of Elijah.  Because Elisha saw Elijah taken up into heaven, he received a double portion of Elijah’s spirit to support his ministry (2 Kings 2:10).  Elisha long ministry was during the reigns of Kings Joram (Jehoram), Jehu, Jehoahaz, and Jehoash (Joash) over the Northern tribes.

At the time of this story, Elisha was in Gilgal, north of Jericho in the tribal lands of Manasseh.  Gilgal was in the midst of a famine.  While a company of prophets were meeting with Elisha, he directed his servant to cook a large pot of stew for the men.  A servant went out into the field to gather herbs.  Finding a wild vine, the man filled a fold of his cloak with gourds from the vine.  Although no one recognized the gourd, they were cut up and put in the stew.

After the stew cooked, it was poured out for  prophets.  As the prophets ate the stew, they became very sick and cried out, “O, man of God, there is death in the pot” (2 Kings 4:40).  Immediately, Elisha directed them to get flour.  He put the flour into the pot.  The flour was probably stirred into the stew.  Then, Elisha directed that the stew be given to the company to eat.  Believing Elisha mitigated the poisonous substance in the stew, the prophets ate it.  None became sick.

Wild Gourd

Many botanists and Bible scholars proposed that the wild vine and gourds were Citrullus colocynthis, a cucumber-like plant with purgative qualities. Likely the flour was from barley, the flour of the poor in Israel.  Possibly the barley flour coated the gourd and/or the stomach and intestinal tract; thus reducing or eliminating the gourd’s severe purgative effect.  Alternatively, the prophets’ faith in Elisha and his flour remedy could have opened a door for God’s power to detoxify the stew.  The chronicle of Elisha’s life showed that time-after-time God assisted Elisha as he walked in God’s path (2 Kings Chapters 4-6).

Citrullus colocynthis is called the bitter gourd.  In the past the gourd may have been eaten, however, it is not now considered an edible plant.  Its origins are North Africa or the Eastern Mediterranean area. It grows in sandy soil and gravel in Israel. As an herbaceous vine, the bitter gourd trails over the ground or climbs shrubs and fences using tendrils. Its leaves resemble those of a watermelon or the familiar garden gourd in the United States. After the vine has withered, gourds can be seen lying in the soil or sand.  Over time, the rind breaks down. Seeds enter the soil or are eaten by animals.  Bitter gourd is propagated by seeds or by root segments; seeds germinate after spring rains. The bitter taste and possibly purgative effect associated with bitter gourd is in the pulp. When seeds are washed and consumed separate from pulp, they are generally described as tasteless.

Symbolism: Death

In the Elisha episode, the bitter gourd is associated with death.  The prophets thought they were dying because they ate the gourd-filled stew.  Originally, God’s plan was that men and women did not die, but lived forever.  Because Adam and Eve desired to be independent of God’s laws, the human race became subject to death.  Through the Old Testament millennia only Enoch (Genesis 5:24) and Elijah (2 Kings 2:11-12) did not die physically; yet God does not take pleasure in death, even the death of the wicked.  God wants the wicked to repent and live (Ezekiel 18:23, 32; 33:11).

Some individuals fear death.  Job personified death as the “king of terrors” (Job 18:14); however, Job declared that death is naked before God (Job 26:5).  Ever gracious, God made a simple way for men and women to not die, but live forever.  Christ said that anyone who hears his word and believes God … will cross over from death to life (John 5:24).  By his own death, Christ destroyed death and bought immortality to the human race (2 Timothy 1:10).  Christ’s death overcame the devil that holds the power of death (Hebrews 2:14).

A way of looking at physical death is that it is a gift, not a punishment, from God.  God allows our bodies – often with pains and diseases — to die so we can be raised to a new life.  Younger individuals may die so they do not have to face the agonies that result from living in a fallen world.   Possibly you and I will physically die before Christ comes to take the saved from the earth.  As Christians we do not have to believe that death is the “king of terrors.”

When Christ comes, Christians who have died will rise; this is called the first resurrection.  Our bodies – decomposed, blown up, or cremated – will be raised.  Perishable, mortal bodies will become imperishable and immortal (1 Corinthians 15:52-55).  Our physical death will be swallowed up in Christ’s death and resurrection.  Then, we will live with Christ eternally.  John wrote that blessed and holy are those who take part in the first resurrection (Revelations 20:6).  They will not participate in or be hurt by the second death (Revelations 2:11 and Study Note).  The second death is the lake of fire reserved for those who did not believe in Christ.  According to Revelations, the following individuals/groups are destined for the lake of fire:  the cowardly, the unbelieving, the vile, the murderous, the sexually immoral, those who practice magic arts, the idolaters, and all liars (Revelations 21:8).  Along with Death and Hades, these individuals/groups will be thrown into the lake of fire (Revelations 20:14).

Reflection.  Elisha’s belief and actions saved the prophets from dying from the poisonous gourd.  Christ’s actions saved us from eternal death.  After reading about the lake of fire, I know it’s not someplace I want to go. What about you – do you want to take part in the first resurrection or the second death?

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright 20/08/18; carolyn a. roth

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Beautifully Ugly

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Isaiah chapter 34 is titled “Judgment Against the Nations” in the NIV Bible.  In God’s description of judgement against Edom, he says, “Thorns will overrun her citadels, nettles and brambles her strong holds. She will become a haunt for jackals, a home for owls” (Isaiah 34:13). The point that God is making is that Israel (and Judah) who trusted other nations for their defense rather than God would be overrun and destroyed. Equally true, the nations in which Israel put her trust would be overrun. Having thorns, nettles, and brambles overrun strongholds implies that people no longer living in these citadels and strongholds. If an individual were to enter these once well-populated, supposed secure areas, they would see jackals slinking around. At night owls that lived on rats and other rodents would hunt there.

Cotoneaster Bramble

Often the Bible bramble is a fast-growing, rough, and prickly shrub of the Rubus Family of plants. This Family contains blackberries and raspberries. Although both are good to eat, the bramble identified in Isaiah most likely was not one that produced any human food. They were just that – brambles that would have to be removed for people to live in the area.

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This photograph of a bramble it one that grows here in the mountains of Roanoke. It is called the cotoneaster (Cotoneaster frigidus) and in the Rosaceae (think rose) Family. I first remember seeing it when I was fishing in the Appalachian Mountains near Paint Bank, Virginia. It grew as a very thick hedge 3-4 feet tall. However, my neighbor has two cotoneaster bushes in his front yard that are about 12 feet tall. He planted them both sides of his front walk.  We live here in the Roanoke Valley (Plant Zone 7 a).  Cotoneaster had its origins in China.

Cotoneaster flowers are light white or light pink and bloom in May in the mountains. It is September, and my neighbor’s cotoneaster still has beautiful flowers. I purchased two cotoneasters and Bruce planted them at church in our Bible garden. They will get afternoon sun. Hopefully, they will make it through our winter.

What we can learn

I didn’t receive any consolation or encouragement from Isaiah’s words. My thoughts were that the United States has put her confidence in politics, money, military; rather than God. We have even built strategic alliances with other nations, NATO, OAS, etc. Yet, look what happened to ancient Israel when she did that. Where are our heads both as individuals and as a nation?

If I allowed myself, I could get depressed; however, I must always remember two things: 1) God is sovereign and 2) God  expects me to do my part to promote him and his kingdom. In the Fellowship of the Ring, an elf says something to the effect, “we fight the long defeat” (Tolkein). Like the elf character, I must continue to fight; but ultimately, I fight the long victory.

Reflection: Why did Isaiah write this Chapter? How can we see it as victory?

If you want to learn more about Bible plants, visit my website: CarolynRothMinistry.com

Copyright September 12, 2016; Carolyn A. Roth

 

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A Dangerous Riddle

SGT (2)

Bible Reference: 2 Kings Chapter 14 and 2 Chronicles Chapter 25.

The Story:

King Jehoash ruled the Northern Kingdom for 16 years (798-782 B.C.). He won a significant battle over King Amaziah (796-767 B.C) of Judah. The background to this Bible narrative has two distinct parts. First, when King Amaziah planned a military campaign against Edom, he recruited 100,000 mercenaries from the Israel. Warned by a prophet to not allow the mercenaries to march with him, Amaziah dismissed them. Despite being paid for their service, the soldiers were furious. They plundered and murdered in Judah while Amaziah battled the Edomites. Second, when Amaziah returned to Jerusalem after a successful campaign against the Edomites, he brought back Edomite idols. Instead of destroying the false gods as Mosaic law required (Deuteronomy 7:5, 25), Amaziah bowed down and worshipped them.

The incident between Kings Jehoash and Amaziah began when Amaziah sent a challenge to Jehoash to meet him in battle. King Jehoash sent a parable and a warning back. The parable was:

A thistle in Lebanon sent a message to a cedar in Lebanon, ‘Give your daughter to my son in marriage.’ Then, a wild beast in Lebanon came along and trampled the thistle underfoot (2 Chronicles 25:18). Then, Jehoash warn Amaziah that because he defeated Edom, he was haughty and proud; Amaziah was asking for trouble if he persisted in challenging Jehoash.

The interpretation of Jehoash’s parable was that he and the Israelites were the majestic cedar of Lebanon while Amaziah was an insignificant thistle. The prized possession Jehoash mentioned could have been associated with a demand from King Amaziah for the Israelite soldier’s to return plunder taken from Judah lands. Instead of giving King Amaziah a prized possession, King Jehoash said that Israel would trample Judah underfoot.

Despite King Jehoash’s warning, Amaziah moved his army against Israel. A battle ensued where Jehoash defeated Amaziah. With Amaziah prisoner, Jehoash proceeded to Jerusalem. There Jehoash seized the Temple gold, silver, and other valuables, the palace treasury, and hostages. King Jehoash had 600 feet of the Jerusalem wall destroyed. Despite Jehoash’s victory, he allowed Amaziah to remain alive and king of Judah.

King Jehoash was not a king who obeyed God; rather, he did evil in God’s eyes (2 Kings 13:10-13). Jehoash continued the idol worship started by Jeroboam I, the first king of Israel. King Jehoash would not have won the battle over Amaziah, but for Amaziah’s sin of rejecting God and worshipping Edomite idols.

The Spotted Golden Thistle

In the Bible, about 20 different words are related to some type of prickly or thorny plant. In Jehoash’s parable, the Hebrew word for thistle is choâch or hoah and is associated with the Scolymus genus of plants. When Jehoash named Amaziah a thistle, possibly he was thinking of the spotted golden thistle, Scolymus maculatus.

The spotted golden thistle was and is a common plant throughout Israel, growing everywhere except along the extreme Mediterranean seashore. Although occasionally cultivated, more often the spotted golden thistle is found in uncultivated lands, e.g., abandoned fields and ditches, and along paths and trails.

Classified as a hearty herbaceous plant, the spotted golden thistle grows well in clay soils. It can be found in semi-shade, light woodlands, and full sunlight. The thistle grows best in temperate climates; however, it will grow in both cold and hot climates. In very hot temperatures, the plant grows rapidly.

Symbolism: Reject, Rejection

In the story of Jehoash, the spotted golden thistle can be associated with several concepts, e.g., pride, insult, and insignificance; however, in this story reject or rejection are the best symbols for the plant. Examples of rejection include Amaziah’s rejection of the 100,000 Israelite Kingdom mercenaries, Amaziah rejecting God in favor of Edomite idols, Jehoash’s willingness to excuse or reject Amaziah’s challenge, and Jehoash’s rejecting the sanctity of the Temple.

Primarily, this Bible episode typifies the Northern Kingdom’s reject of God. They ejected God’s decrees, the covenant he made with their fathers, and warnings he gave them through his prophets. The Northern Kingdom rejected God by plundering his home, the Jerusalem Temple. Eventually, God rejected the Northern Kingdom tribes as they first rejected him.

How do we living in the 21st century reject God? We do it by not setting aside time to spend with God every day, e.g., failing to have daily biblical study and prayer time. We make the decision to skip Sunday church services identifying that we are just too tired after a busy work week. We reject God when we reject other persons for whatever the reason, e.g., they are just not our type of person, we have nothing in common with them, they look poor and maybe even disheveled, they are hard to understand linguistically.

Reflection

In the last paragraph, you read how I reject God. What about you? How do you reject God?

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright: May 28, 2015: Carolyn A. Roth

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Poison on the Tongue

Amos’s comparison of the Northern Kingdom to a poisonous hemlock plant is found in Amos 6:12.

Conium maculatum flower

Amos is the third book of the Minor Prophets.  The minor prophets were considered minor in the sense that their books were much smaller than those of Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, not because their messages were less important.  Amos prophesied over a 10 year period, 760-750 B.C.

Amos’ home was Tekoa, a town about 12 miles south of Jerusalem.  When God called him to be a prophet, Amos was a herdsman and tender of sycamore trees.  Amos completed most of his ministry in the area of Bethel, the Northern Kingdom’s main sanctuary.  At Bethel, Jeroboam I set up one of the golden calves soon after the 10 Northern tribes formed an independent kingdom.  All manner of pagan worship practices occurred at Bethel.  At the time of Amos’ prophecy the Northern Kingdom was politically secure and prosperous under the rule of Jeroboam II (sole reign 782-753 B.C.).

Amos was a vehement spokesman for God’s justice.  He argued that true righteousness and piety were displayed through social justice for all citizens.  Although Amos did not identify Assyria as the means of God’s judgment on the Northern Kingdom, he warned them that God’s judgment was fast approaching.  The judgment would be more than military conquest and tribute to a foreign conqueror.  It would involve total destruction of the Northern Kingdom as a nation and dispersion of its citizens to foreign lands.  Amos accused leaders and ordinary citizens of turning justice into gall, and the fruit of righteousness into hemlock (Amos 6:12, TEB).  Hemlock was a poisonous plant.

The Hemlock Plant

The botanical name for the hemlock plant is Conium maculatum, also known as the poisonous hemlock. It is indigenous to Eastern Mediterranean countries where it is classified as a toxic weed.  In about 399 B.C., the Greek philosopher Socrates was condemned to drink hemlock poison as a means of committing suicide.  Poisonous hemlock is found on banks of streams and rivers, along roadsides and hedgerows, in wasteland, pastures, and meadow lands.  The poisonous hemlock should not be confused with the Canadian hemlock tree  or the American water hemlock tree.  A single plant can produce 35,000-40,000 seeds.  Leaves and seeds are harvested for medicinal purposes are the leaves and seeds; however, medicinal uses of hemlock are limited because of the closeness of therapeutic and poisonous levels.  Sometimes children see the plant top, mistake it for carrots or parsley, and eat it.  Because hemlocks are rare in North America and initially hemlock signs and symptoms mimic other acute conditions, physicians may not immediately diagnose hemlock poisoning when children present in emergency departments.

Symbolism: Poison

At times the hemlock plant has been associated with bitterness, calamity, and sorrow.  In Amos, the Hebrew word laʽǎnâh was used as the word for hemlock; the word laʽǎnâh comes from an unused root meaning “to curse.”  All these words are good candidates for the symbolism of poisonous hemlock; however, I am going to associate the hemlock plant with poison or poisonous.  A poison is a substance that kills, injures or impairs; it is destructive, harmful, and corrupt. Poisonous described the hemlock plant and best depicted the words and behaviors of the Northern Kingdom leaders and citizens in the book of Amos.

When I looked at the behavior of the Northern Kingdom people, I thought, “I’m never going to act like they did; nor say and do the things they did.”  Then, I recalled some Bible teachings on poison and the tongue.  In Psalms (140:3), we read that evil men make their tongues as sharp as the poison of snakes.  Similarly, James pointed out that man has tamed all kinds of animals, birds, reptiles and sea, but man cannot take the tongue; it is a restless evil, full of poison (James 3:7-8).  James said that the tongue is set on fire by hell which is a figuratively way of saying by the devil (James 3:6).

Reflection:  Some days my tongue is so sharp that I am embarrassed by what comes out of my mouth.  On those days, my words are not from God; but, from the Devil. Have you ever wished words unsaid? How can we prevent poison from coming out of our mouths?

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright: May 12, 2015; Carolyn A. Roth

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Zechariah and the Myrtle Tree

Myrtle for book (2)The story of Zechariah’s vision of horses among myrtle trees is in Zechariah 1:1-17.

The first year the Jewish exiles returned to Jerusalem they rebuilt the Temple Altar. The second year (536 B.C.), they laid the Temple foundation. Non-Jewish people who lived in the area, largely Samaritans, offered to help rebuild the Temple. When the Jews refused their assistance, these enemies initiated a systematic program to discourage the Jews from rebuilding the Temple. Temple construction stopped for about 10 years through the end (530 B.C.) of Cyrus reign down into the reign of Darius I (522-486 B.C.).

In the 2nd year of Darius reign, God spoke through the prophet Haggai (August, 520 B.C.).  God’s message was for the Jews to complete the Temple. Haggai attributed the drought in Judah to the Temple being in ruins. Almost immediately the Jews initiated Temple construction. Two months after Haggai message from God, Zechariah received a message. Zechariah’s prophecy mirrored that of Haggai, e.g., rebuild the Temple; but included that the Jews repent and serve the Lord.

Several months later Zechariah received eight visions in one night. In the first vision, Zechariah saw a man riding a red horse. Then, the man stood among myrtle trees in a ravine. Behind the man were other horses. The man explained to Zechariah that these were the riders that God sent throughout the earth. The riders came back and reported that the world was at peace. Hearing the riders’ reports, the angel of the Lord asked God how long he was going to withhold mercy from Jerusalem. God responded with kind and comforting words to the concerned angel: God was jealous for Jerusalem and Zion. He was angry with the nations who punished the Jews because they went too far in brutality against Judah. God’s plan was to punish the offending nations and return to Jerusalem with comfort and mercy. He promised that Judah’s towns would again overflow with prosperity.

The setting for Zechariah’s first vision is defined in detail. The man who rode the red horse stood among myrtle trees in a small, narrow, steep-sided valley. MacDonald (1995) said that the myrtle trees in the ravine represented Israel under Gentile subjection. In the Bible, the angel of the Lord is often identified as the second person of the Trinity (Christ); consequently, it was Christ expressing his concern for the well-being of the Jews and Jerusalem (Adeyemo, 2006).

Myrtle

The myrtle of the Bible is the Myrtus communis. Its origins are the Middle East and the Mediterranean region. At one time wild myrtle was common throughout Palestine and Lebanon. Today in Israel, most myrtle bushes are grown intentionally and used for ornamental purposes; however, some wild plants remain in the Upper Galilee and Golan areas. Although myrtle is hardy to temperatures as low as 5 degrees Fahrenheit, it is damaged by cold drying wind. Myrtle is classified as an evergreen shrub or small tree that will grow to 24 feet tall. The myrtle fruit is a purplish-black berry known in the Middle East as mursins. Mursins can be dried then ground add flavor to stews or boiled to yield a jelly or a beverage.

The myrtle is one of the four blessed plants used in the Jewish Festival of Tabernacles (Sukkoth). To fill the requirement for Sukkoth, three leaves must grow from one point on the myrtle stem.  Jewish sages compared the myrtle, which has a good smell but no taste, to Israelites those who do good deeds, but do not study the Torah (first five books of the Old Testament).

Symbolism: Prosper, Prosperity

Many world cultures assigned meaning to the myrtle blossom to include beauty, love, paradise, and immortality.  For the Jews, myrtle can symbolize sweetness, justice, divine generosity, peace, God’s promise, and recovery. Zechariah’s vision of horsemen, angels and God among the myrtle trees reinforced God’s promise that the returned exiles would be prosperous.  Prosperity means a person or group thrived or flourished and was successful, especially in financial or economic terms.

For the Jews of Zechariah’s time to prosper, God required that they repent, serve the Lord, and rebuild the temple  Other Bible verses identified additional requirements for prosperity.  See Table 4 for a summary of some of these requirements for prosperity. They apply equally to Christians today.

Table 4:  Some Biblical Requirements for Prosperity

God’s Requirements for the Jews to Prosper Source: Bible Verses
Repentance Deuteronomy 30: 1-5
Obedience to the will and laws (commandments)  of God Deuteronomy 28:9-11, 30:8-9;  I Kings 2:3; Ezra 6:6; Proverbs 3:1-2
Fear the Lord (and walk in his ways) Psalm 128:1-2
Do right in God’s eyes, pursuing and living righteously 2 Chronicles 14:2-7, 31:20-21;

When we consider God’s requirements for prosperity, they do not seem particularly onerous, e.g., repent, obey God’s laws, trust God, do what is right in God’s eyes, and be generous.  Prosperity not only benefits people who receive God’s abundance; it also benefits and causes joy in the entire city and region (Proverbs 11:10).

The Bible revealed reasons that people do not prosper. The chief reasons were the opposite of behaviors that cause prosperity.  Disobeying God (Deuteronomy 28:62), having a perverse heart (Proverbs 17:20), and concealing sin (Proverbs 28:13) lead to lack of prosperity  The problem is that we all see and know people who have no regard for God or his laws but they seem to get ahead (prosper) in the workplace and in society. How can we meld our personal experiences with what the Bible says, yes, even promises, about prosperity being related to a godly life?

The great prophet Jeremiah asked God the same question. Jeremiah’s explicit words were “why do the ways of the wicked prosper” Why do the faithless live at ease?” (Jeremiah 12:1, NIV-SB, 2002). God response was to Jeremiah but also to all of us who ask him the same question. God assure Jeremiah that evil individuals will sow wheat but reap thorns; they will wear themselves out but gain nothing (Jeremiah 12:13).

Over breakfast Bruce and I talk about how difficult it is to deal with friends and relatives who do not embrace the ways of Christ. Some are prosperous and seem to live charmed lives. At times their actions are deliberately or indifferently cruel. We know that as Christians, we can not to be offended by what they do, nor can we respond in kind. Instead, our prayers must be that we do not hurt them inadvertently. We need to pray for their redemption and their prosperity.

Reflection. Because we are Christians does not mean we will be prosperous. Because a person is not a Christian does not mean he will not be prosperous.

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright December 16, 2012; carolyn a. roth

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Nebuchadnezzar ate Grass

Cicer arietinum, chickpea The story of Daniel interpreting King Nebuchadnezzar’s dream and the outcome of the dream is in Daniel chapter 4.

Along with other members of the Israelite royal family and nobility, Daniel was deported (605 B.C.) to Babylon during the reign of the Chaldean king Nebuchadnezzar. He was given a Babylonian name and was educated for service in the Babylonian court. God gave Daniel ability to understand and interpret dreams. His abilities so impressed Nebuchadnezzar that the king made Daniel ruler over the entire province of Babylon and chief officer over the wise men.

Nebuchadnezzar had a dream about a mighty tree that reached the heavens and was visible to the ends of the earth. The tree provided shade and food for all manner of animals and birds.  Heavenly beings decreed that the tree be chopped down, its branches and leaves stripped, and its fruit scattered. The tree’s stump remained with the beast of the grass.  Nebuchadnezzar asked Daniel to interpret the dream.

Daniel told King Nebuchadnezzar that he was the tree that would be chopped down.  Nebuchadezzar would lose his sanity and kingdom. He would dwell with beasts in the field and eat grass like oxen. Only when Nebuchadnezzar acknowledged that God gave him the Chaldean kingdom, would Nebuchadnezzar recover his mind.  Daniel implored the king to break off his sins and show mercy to the oppressed.

Despite Daniel’s warning, King Nebuchadnezzar did not change his behavior. After 12 months, the king walked on the palace roof admiring his power and majesty. While he was speaking words of self-praise, a voice from heaven told Nebuchadnezzar that God’s time of judgment was now. Nebuchadnezzar lost his sanity. He went to the fields and ate grass. His body became wet from the dew of heaven. Nebuchadnezzar’s hair grew long as eagle’s feathers and his nails were like bird’s claws.

At the end of seven years, Nebuchadnezzar lifted up his eyes and acknowledged the God of heaven.  His reason returned to him and his kinship was restored.  Nebuchadnezzar blessed the Most High and credited God with returning his kingdom to him. The Bible story ends by Nebuchadnezzar saying, “those who walk in pride he (God) is able to humble” (Daniel 4:37, NIV-SB, 2002).

Chick-peas

In the story of Nebuchadnezzar, grass referred to a grazing or forage crop for oxen.  Probably Nebuchadnezzar ate more than one type of grass because animal forage is seasonal.  Ancient Babylon produced barley, chick peas, the sesame, and a marshland edible root (gongai). In ancient Babylon and in modern day Iraq where Babylon was located, chickpeas are consumed by both humans and animals. The Iraq chickpea is the Cicer arietinum L. Chickpea plants were cultivated as early as 5000 years B.C. in Syria and Turkey.   In 2012, chickpeas were not listed as a plant that currently grows in Israel. Chick peas have a high biological value. Starch, amino acids (building blocks of proteins), and minerals are present in seeds.  Humans eat seeds raw, cooked, fresh, or dried.  Often seeds are described as tasting like a sweet chestnut.  Livestock (particularly cows and pigs) eat broken seeds and seed pods; plant straw is used as animal fodder.  In developing countries, dried stems and roots are used as a cooking fuel.

Symbolism:  Forage, Grazing

In the story of Nebuchadnezzar eating grass like an animal, the chickpea symbolized forage and grazing.  As a noun forage means food for animals to eat; sometimes animal forage is called hay, feed, or silage.  As an action (verb), forage means that the animal is searching, hunting, or rummaging for food. Grazing includes the process of foraging, but also means that the grazer eats small portions of food throughout the day. Some days, e.g., after church or on Saturday afternoon during football season, my husband and I do not cook meals; rather we forage or graze on food all afternoon and evening.  He’s a chips, cashews, and chicken wings guy, while I am happy with my biscotti, chocolate, and peanut butter. Like Nebuchadnezzar grazing for fodder eating a little bite here and there, Bruce and I make multiple trips to the refrigerator and pantry.

Many people are foraging or hunting for answers to today’s problems and challenges.  In the process they take a small bite of this or that philosophy or religion. They may watch an evangelist for a short time, or pick up a Bible for a brief read. When they do not get immediate answers or the answers they want, they turn to another book, person, or ism. Their actions are like my eating biscotti, chocolate, and peanut butter – maybe at times tasty, but not nutritionally adequate or fulfilling.

We are not going to know God by grazing lightly through the Bible, or attending church on a hit or miss basis.  People who take this approach will need to hear the elementary truths of God’s word over and over again. They will drink milk rather than eat the solid foods of teachings on righteousness (Hebrews 5:11-14). God wants methodical people who will search the scriptures daily, learn from them, and apply them to their lives.  He wants followers who attend church and Bible study with a teachable heart.

Nebuchadnezzar got God’s message.  After returning to his senses, Nebuchadnezzar acknowledged that God is supreme and does according to his will in heaven and among the inhabitants of the earth (Daniel 4:38, NIV-SB, 2002).  Likely Nebuchadnezzar would tell men and women who graze or nibble in the Christian faith that God’s signs are great and his wonders mighty (Daniel 4:3, NIV-SB, 2002).  God’s kingdom is everlasting and endures from generation to generation.

Reflection.  Are you a grazer – taking small bites of Christianity here and there – or are you a disciple, a convicted adherent to Christianity.  Have you taken a big bit of God or are you still nibbling around?

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright November 4, 2012; carolyn a. roth

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Hosea Prophecy about a Lily Blossom

Easter LilyIf Israel repented, God would cause them to blossom like a lily; see Hosea chapter 14.

The book of Hosea is the first book of the Minor Prophets.  Hosea lived in the final disastrous days of the Northern Kingdom when 6 kings reigned within 25 years.  Because Hosea came from the northern tribes, he was aware of every pride and perversion of the people.  While Amos addressed God’s justice and social justice, Hosea spoke of God’s love, mercy, and forgiveness.  At the same time, Hosea averred that Israel’s disloyalty to God idol worship was spiritual adultery.  Hosea identified Assyria as the source of God’s judgment on the Northern Tribes.

Hosea implored Israel to repent so that God could heal their waywardness.  God wanted to love them freely and turn his anger from them.  God said that if Israel repented, he would be like the dew and Israel would blossom like a lily.  Dew symbolized God’s blessing on Israel, mirroring Jacob’s blessing on Joseph, e.g., “may the Lord bless his (Joseph’s) land with the precious dew from heaven above” (Deuteronomy 33:13)  God was willing to use this heavenly dew to refresh and stimulate Israel to be lily blossom.

The Hebrew word shôshân (shôwshân), translates as “lily,” and means a beautiful flower.  Possibly the word shôshân was derived from shesh, the primary root for “six” the number of petals on the lily plant.  The lily is the most mentioned flower in the Bible.   In ancient times, supposedly the lily was dear to the heart of God and to all Israelites.  Over time the lily became known as the Star of David which appears on the modern Israeli flag.

The Lily

The lily described in Hosea is most likely the Lilium candidum, also known as the Madonna lily because it appeared frequently in pictures with the Virgin Mary.   The origin of the L. candidum is probably the Middle East and/or Greece.  In Israel, wild lilies grow in Mediterranean wood and Carmel and Upper Galilee. It can grow in semi-shade or full sun. L. candidum grows from a bulb planted just below the soil surface. Typical of plants in Mediterranean climates, this lily’s leaves die down in the very hot summer and grow up again in the rainy fall and early winter.  Usually each stem has several large flowers which live for 5-6 days. The dazzlingly white corolla is funnel shaped with six pointed petals that form a symmetrical star shape. The lily fruit splits open and disperses many small seeds which can germinate in up to four weeks.  Most gardeners purchase small plants or bulbs for propagation.

Symbolism:  Chastity & Innocence

In Latin, Lilium means shining or pure white. In Hosea 14, the lily symbolized chastity and innocence. Chastity means abstaining from unlawful sexual intercourse. If Israel ceased prostituting themselves to idols, they would be chaste before God. They would no longer commit spiritual adultery. Innocence is freedom from guilt or sin by being unacquainted with evil. If Israel repented and returned to God, then God would restore their innocence. Their previous spiritual adultery would not have occurred. God was willing to make the degenerate Northern Kingdom chaste and innocent similar to a young man or woman who never had sex or even thought about sex.  

Through Christ, God invites each of us to become chaste and innocent, no matter our sins, crimes, or idols. Chastity and innocence occurs when we have new birth by accepting Christ as our savior. We can maintain that same chastity and innocence by confessing our sins to God on an ongoing basis (1 John 1:9). 

Reflection. Do you feel innocent and chaste before God? What are your idols? Are you ready to give them up for a return to God-given innocence and chastity?

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright July 20, 2012; carolyn a. roth

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Jehoash’s Parable of the Thistle

SGT (2)The story of King Jehoash of the Northern Kingdom sending a thistle parable to Amaziah, King of Judah, is told in two places: 2 Kings Chapter 14 and 2 Chronicles Chapter 25.

King Jehoash ruled the Northern Kingdom for 16 years between 798-782 B.C. (Rulers of the Divided Kingdom of Israel and Judah, 2002).  He won a significant battle over King Amaziah (796-767 B.C) of Judah primarily because Amaziah rejected God.  The background to this Bible narrative has two distinct parts.  First, when King Amaziah planned a military campaign against Edom, he recruited 100,000 mercenaries from the Northern Kingdom and paid them 100 talents of silver.  Warned by a prophet to not allow the mercenaries to march with him, Amaziah dismissed the Northern Kingdom soldiers.  The soldiers were furious and proceeded to plunder and murder in Judah while Amaziah was battling the Edomites.  Second, when Amaziah returned to Jerusalem after a successful campaign against the Edomites, he brought back Edomite gods.  Instead of destroying the false gods as Mosaic law required (Deuteronomy 7:5, 25), Amaziah accepted the Edomite gods as his own gods, bowed down to them, and offered sacrifices to them.  Angry with Amaziah, God sent a prophet to warn him about worshipping Edomite gods.  Amaziah would not allow the prophet to speak and threatened to kill him.  The prophet told Amaziah that because of his response, God would destroy him.

The incident between King Jehoash of the Northern Kingdom and Amaziah began with Amaziah sending a message to Jehoash to come and meet him in battle.  Probably Amaziah’s challenge was the result of the Northern Kingdom plundering and killing in Judean towns.  King Jehoash sent a parable and a warning back to Amaziah.  The parable was, “A thistle in Lebanon sent a message to a cedar in Lebanon, ‘Give your daughter to my son in marriage.’  Then, a wild beast in Lebanon came along and trampled the thistle underfoot” (2 Chronicles 25:18).  Following the parable, Jehoash warn Amaziah that because he defeated Edom, he was haughty and proud; but with his challenge to Jehoash, Amaziah was asking for trouble that would cause his own downfall and that of Judah.

The interpretation of Jehoash’s parable was that he and the Northern Kingdom were the majestic cedar of Lebanon while Amaziah was an insignificant thistle.  The lowly thistle (Amaziah) had the audacity to demand from the cedar (Jehoash) a prize possession.   Instead of giving the King of Judah a prize, Jehoash and the Northern tribes would trample Judah underfoot.

Amaziah did not listen to Jehoash’s warding; he moved the Judean army against the Northern Kingdom. The result was a battle where Jehoash defeated Amaziah and took him prisoner.  Amaziah’s soldiers fled to their homes.  With his prisoner, Jehoash proceeded to Jerusalem.  There Jehoash seized the Temple gold, silver, and other valuables, the palace treasury, and hostages.  King Jehoash had 600 feet of the wall surrounding Jerusalem broken down.  Despite his overwhelming victory, Jehoash allowed Amaziah to remain king of Judah.

King Jehoash was not a king who obeyed God; rather, he did evil in God’s eyes (2 Kings 13:10-13).   Jehoash continued in the idol worship of Jeroboam I (the first King of the Northern tribes).   King Jehoash would not have won the battle over Amaziah, but for Amaziah’s sin of rejecting God and worshipping the Edomite gods.

Spotted Golden ThistleThe Spotted Golden Thistle

In the Bible, about 20 different words are related to some type of prickly or thorny plant. In Jehoash’s parable, the Hebrew word for thistle is choâch or hoah and is associated with the Scolymus genus of plants. When Jehoash named Amaziah a thistle, possibly he was thinking of the spotted golden thistle, Scolymus maculatus, an annual thistle which grows almost everywhere in Israel.  Although occasionally cultivated, more often spotted golden thistle it is found in uncultivated lands, e.g., abandoned fields and ditches, and along paths and trails. Each flower is composed of narrow, 1–2 inch yellow petal growing in   3-4 concentric circles around a center.  Fruits are flat seeds. The thistle drops seed to the ground where they readily germinate.

Symbolism: Rejection, Reject

The spotted golden thistle in the Jehoash story can be associated with several concepts, e.g., pride, insult, and insignificance; however, in this story reject or rejection are the best symbols for the plant.   Examples of rejection include Amaziah’s rejection of the 100,000 Northern Kingdom mercenaries, Amaziah rejecting God and his prophet in favor of the Edomite gods, Jehoash’s willingness to excuse or reject Amaziah’s challenge, Jehoash’s rejecting the sanctity of the Temple and plundering its treasury, and even most people rejecting thistle leaves as a food source.

Rejection is exactly what the Northern Kingdom did to God. They rejected God’s degrees, the covenant he made with their fathers, and the warnings he gave them over the centuries through his prophets (2 Kings 17:14).  God was so angry with the Northern Kingdom that he used the Assyrian’s as his vehicle of retribution.  Between 738-732 B.C., Assyrian, Tiglath-Pilesar III invaded the Northern Kingdom (Assyrian Campaign against Israel and Judah, 2002).  The mode of warfare included beheading, individuals skinned alive, and corpses impaled on stakes.  The Assyrians conquered much of the Northern Kingdom and deported the inhabitants to Assyria (2 Kings 15:29).  After that war, the Israelite king who reigned in Samaria had a small kingdom that primarily included the tribal lands of Ephraim.  In 732 B.C., Hoshea became king in Samaria and again rebelled against Assyria.  During the campaigns of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser V (725-722 B.C.), the remainder of the Northern Kingdom was conquered; 27,290 inhabitants were taken as booty to Assyria.  By the end of 721 B.C., God rejected the people of the Northern Kingdom as they first rejected him.

Christians need to be alert so they do not reject God.  Paul wrote to the Thessalonians (4:8) that individuals who reject God’s instruction reject God.  Paul provided instruction to the Christians of Thessalonica on how to please God (I Thessalonians 4:1-7).  Some of the instruction included the need to keep their bodies holy and honorable and to reject sexual immorality.  One piece of Paul’s instruction included that no one wrong his brother or take advantage of him.  We wrong our brother and sister when we commit adultery.   In adultery, the spouse of the adulterer is always wronged.  Premarital sex or fornication robs a future spouse of the virginity of the fornicator.  Viewing pornography, imagining pornographic episodes, and reading pornographic novels remove the beauty of intimacy from the marital relationship and can lead to sexual dissatisfaction and impotency.  Incest robs children of innocence and destroys families.

The sexual perversions mentioned above are not new in present day society.  They occurred in pre-Noah time, in Sodom and Gomorrah in Abraham’s time, in Canaan before the Israelites entered the Promised Land, and in the Northern Kingdom.  In the next chapter we will read that sexual perversions were present in Judah.  Sexual misconduct is against God’s law.  God punishes men and women for sexual sins   As usual, Paul summed up our sexual responsibilities when he wrote “for God did not call us to be impure, but to live a holy life” (I Thessalonians 4:7).

Reflection.  Are you controlling your mind and body in a way that is holy and honorable?   Are you wronging your brothers and sisters?  Are you wronging your present or future spouse?

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright May 29, 2012; carolyn a. roth

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Dove’s Dung as Food at Samaria

Dove's DungThe story of the siege of Samaria is found in 2 Kings 6:24-7:20.

The king of Aram, Ben-Hadad, mobilized his entire army and attacked the Northern Kingdom besieging its capital Samaria.  Aram was located directly north of the Northern Kingdom; Damascus was its capital.  Probably the attack occurred around 850 B.C. when Joram was king of the Northern tribes.  Elisha was still the main prophet in the Northern Kingdom and remained in Samaria during the siege.  It last so long that a severe famine occurred in the city.   People were starving.  At donkey’s head sold for 80 shekels of silver and a quarter of a cab of seed pods for five shekels.  One day as King Joram was walking the city wall, he learned that cannibalization was occurring in Samaria.  Joram tore his robes and threatened to kill Elisha.

We are not told the exact reason for Joram’s anger at Elisha; but, clearly Joram considered Elisha responsible for conditions in besieged Samaria.  Perhaps, Elisha told Joram to hold out against the Arameans and that God would deliver the city.  King Joram went to Elisha house where he confronted Elisha with “This disaster is from the Lord. Why should I wait for the Lord any longer?” (2 Kings 6:33).  Elisha’s responded that by about this time tomorrow, the cost of grain would be much reduced; meaning the siege would be lifted.  King Joram must have been reassured because he did not kill Elisha.

The Bible narrative then moved to four lepers.  The lepers were so hungry that they left the city and walked to the Aramean camp for food.  When the lepers arrived at the camp, it was deserted.  The Lord caused the Arameans to hear the sound of a great army approaching.  Believing that both the Hittites and Egyptians were attaching them, the Arameans fled, abandoning their tents, provisions, horses, and donkeys.  After eating their fill, the lepers talked among themselves saying, “We’re not doing right. This is a day of good news and we are keeping it to ourselves” (2 Kings 7:9).  The four lepers returned to Samaria and reported what they found.  Although King Joram was suspicious of the report, he sent men in chariots to investigate the Aramean camp.  The men returned and reported the camp was empty and the road was strewed with clothing and equipment.   Samaritan citizens swarmed the Aramean camp taking food and supplies.  Thus, God saved Samaria from the Aramean army and from starvation

In the siege of Samaria, the Bible used a quarter cab of seed pods to demonstrate how scarce food was in the city.  In ancient Hebrew, a quarter of a cab was about 1 pint.  During the siege, a pint of seed pods sold for five silver shekels; equivalent to about 2.62 ounces of silver.  Today in the United State, silver sells for about $35.00 an ounce; therefore, one pint of pods was valued at $92.00.  In ancient Israel, the value of a male child one month through five years of age was 5 silver shekels, while the value of a female child was 3 silver shekels (Leviticus 27:6-7).

Cab of Seed Pods

Both the King James Bible and the Revised Standard Version translated seed pods as dove’s dung.  Many botanists and Bible scholars agree that the plant was the Ornithogalum umbellatum.  Another popular name is the Star of Bethlehem because of the six petals on its flower.  Dove’s dung seems like a distasteful name for this beautiful plant.  Most likely the name “dove’s dung” came from Hebrew’s viewing large fields containing the white Star of Bethlehem flower in the spring.  The small white flowers appeared like dove’s droppings from a distance.  In temperate climates the plant  blooms April to May.  Flower stalks grow from below ground level and each produces a single flower. After flowering and producing seeds, the Star of Bethlehem remains dormant during the e summer heat.  In autumn or cooler weather, bulbs reproduce underground. In the United States, the Star of Bethlehem is often considered an invasive weed being more difficult to control with herbicides than many other species of plants.

The edibility of Dove’s dung has generated much discussion. Reading the arguements,  James Duke harvested a few of the bulbs from in his lawn (Duke, Duke, & duCellier, 2008).  After boiling them vigorously without salt, he ate one.  To Duke the bulbs tasted similar to soap and had a bitter aftertaste.  He added salt and found that the boiled bulbs improved in taste. Because he experienced some shortness of breath following ingestion of only two bulbs, Duke concluded to eat the Star of Bethlehem he would need to be near starvation.

Symbolism: Value or Valuable

Value is an assigned or computed numerical quantity, or something intrinsically desirable.  In several places, Bible writers presented perspectives on what was valued and valuable.   Moses regarded disgrace for the sake of Christ as more valuable than the treasures of Egypt (Hebrews 11:26).  Israelite proverbs says that kings value a man who speaks the truth (Proverbs 26:28) and the husband of a wife of noble character lacks nothing of value (Proverbs16:13). Christ told the parable of a man who searched for just the right pearl (Matthew 13:46).  When the man found the pearl of great value, he sold all his belongings and bought it.  This parable can be compared to a person seeking truth and meaning in life.  Once they find Christ, all possessions become secondary in value to following Christ.

God considers his people valuable.  Christ told his disciples to stop worrying about what they should eat or drink by using ravens as an example.  Ravens are a fairly large, black bird with a shrill voice and aggressive manner.  Ravens do not sow or reap, nor do they have storerooms or barns, yet, God feeds them.  Christ reminded and reassured his disciples that they were more valuable to God than birds, and that God will meet their needs (Luke 12:24, 30-31).

On another occasion, Christ’s teaching on what was valued and valuable was not meant to reassure.  At the time Christ was teaching about trust using the parable of the shrewd manager (Luke 16:1-14).  The Pharisees who loved money were listening and sneering at Jesus.  Aware of their actions and hearts, Christ said to them, “what is highly valued (e.g., money) among men is detestable in God’s sight” (Luke 16:15).  In another teaching, Christ likened money to a master or a god (Matthew 6: 24).  He told his disciples that they cannot serve both God and Money.

In Paul’s first letter to his beloved disciple Timothy, Paul reminded Timothy that “physical training is of some value, but godliness has value for all things” (1Timothy 4:8).  Once we are born in Christ, we no long live a life characterized by sin (1 John 3:9).  When we emulate Christ’s actions and obey God’s word, we train ourselves and God trains us to be godly.  Being godly is intrinsically desirable; it is valuable both in the present life we live and most assuredly in the life to come (1 Timothy 4:8).

Reflection.  What is valuable to you? Do you value your spouse, children, career, or home more than God?  Sometimes I worry that I value my husband more than my walk with God.  Monitoring our priorities is a continuous process.

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright May 19, 2012; carolyn a. roth

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Elijah under the Broom Tree

Retama raetam, NKThe story of Elijah is told in 1 Kings with the specific story of Elijah and the broom tree in 1 Kings Chapter’s 18 and 19.

The Northern Kingdom had eight kings in its first 58 years as a nation.  This story about the great prophet Elijah occurred during the reign (874-853 B.C.) of King Ahab.  Ahab married Jezebel, daughter of the king of Sidon, who worshiped Baal.  Ahab built a temple to Baal and consecrated priests to serve Baal.

In an encounter between Elijah and King Ahab, Elijah challenged the prophets of Baal.  The challenge was to see which god — Baal or God — would answer his prophet(s).  Ahab took the challenge, gathered 450 Baal prophets, and met Elijah on Mount Carmel.  Many Israelites were present to watch the outcome.  Baal’s prophets placed a cut up bull on an altar of wood dedicated to Baal; the prophets called to Baal to ignite the sacrifice.  Despite entreating Baal from morning until evening and slashing themselves, the sacrifice to Baal did not catch on fire.

Elijah repaired God’s altar on Mount Carmel which had fall apart from disuse and neglect.  He arranged wood on the altar, cut a bull in pieces, and placed the pieces on the altar.  Massive amounts of water were poured over the bull and altar.  Elijah prayed naming God, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel.  He asked God to light the fire so a) the people would know that he did these things at God’s direction and b) to let the people know that the Lord was God.  Immediately, fire consumed Elijah’s sacrifice.  The people fell prostrate and cried, “The Lord – he is God!  The Lord – he is God!” (1 Kings 18:39).  Elijah commanded the people to seize the Baal’s prophets; they were taken to the Kishon Valley and slaughtered.

When King Ahab reported what happened to Queen Jezebel, she sent a messenger to Elijah that she would have him killed by that time tomorrow.  Instead of a day of triumph for Elijah, it became a day of terror.  He fled Samaria and ran over 100 miles to an area south of Beersheba in Judah.  Elijah came to a broom tree, sat down under it, and prayed that he would die.  Elijah was completely disheartened; finally he fell asleep.

While he was sleeping, an angel touched Elijah, and directed him to get up and eat.  Looking around, Elijah saw a cake of bread baked over embers and a jar of water.  Elijah ate and drank, then lay down again.  The angel came back a second time, touched Elijah and said, “Get up and eat, for the journey is too much for you” (1 King 19:7).  Elijah rose, ate, and drank.  Strengthened by the food, Elijah traveled 40 days and nights until he reached Mount Horab, where God gave Moses the 10 Commandments.

In Biblical Israel, the white broom tree was used for kindling in cooking stoves and coals were made from its roots, trunks, and branches (Job 30:4).  Broom embers retain their heat for long periods after they appear to be dead ashes.  An ancient Israelite reading that on awakening Elijah saw bread baked on embers would have assumed the embers retained fire from an earlier traveler and were blown into heat to bake the bread.  Desert travelers have reported forming a layer of broom embers to suit their size. They covered the embers with a 2–4 inch layer of sand or fine soil.  The sand-cover embers provided a warm mattress during the cold desert night.  Perhaps Elijah had such a mattress as he slept under the broom tree.

The Broom Tree

The broom tree that Elijah rested under in the Negev was the Retama raetam, also known as the white broom and the white weeping broom tree).  The broom tree is thought to be indigenous to the Middle East, North Africa, and possibly Sicily.  In Israel, it is widespread in deserts including extreme deserts, shrub steppes, and Mediterranean woodlands.  Although called a tree, it is a shrub with a broad canopy. In Israel, the white broom tree is most beautiful between January and April when it is covered with a myriad of white flowers.  Flowers  emit a honey fragrance. At times seeds remain viable in the soil for several years until the seed coat wears down.  Mass germination can occur after a fire that destroys seed coats.  In Israel rabbits consume pods and have been known to disperse seeds up to 6.2 miles from parent plants.  Seeds can survive soil being mulched or composted.

Symbolism: Renewal

The symbolism of the broom tree is renewal.  With renewal comes a restoration of vigor and a new freshness; what is faded or disintegrated is made  whole. When Elijah arrived at the bloom tree, he was exhausted, depressed, and ready to die.  What was to be a victory for God and Elijah over Baal and his prophets turned into Elijah fleeing for his life from Jezebel and her henchmen.  If anyone needed to be renewed, it was Elijah.  The broom tree provided this renewal for Elijah.  If the shrub was blooming, Elijah would have seen thousands of tiny white blooms and smelled their soothing scent.  Sinking below the tree’s canopy, Elijah fell asleep on a soft bed of broom leaves. Warm embers under the sand may have helped maintain his warmth in the cool desert night.  The broom tree’s embers were used to bake a cake of bread for Elijah; and God provided Elijah water in the desert.

Just as God renewed Elijah using attributes of the broom tree, God’s renews us.  We are made new when we accept Christ as our Lord and Savior; however, God knew that after our new birth, we would need to be refreshed and restored to vigor from time-to-time.  For just these times, God had Isaiah write, “those who hope in the Lord will renew their strength. (Isaiah 40:31 2002).  When we hope in the Lord, we have confidence in him.  Having confidence in God can renew us so we can walk, run, and soar without collapsing from the weight of the world’s challenges.

Paul told Christians another way they could be renewed was to stop conforming to the patterns of this world (Roman 12:2).  Patterns of this world include being politically correct and not talking about God and religion, using Sunday morning to play golf or grocery shop without crowds rather than attending worship service, or believing that marriage is not a sacrament from God and divorce is a viable alternative to working through tough times.  In The Message, Peterson (2003, p. 343) puts renewal this way, “don’t become so well adjusted to your culture that you fit into it without even thinking”  instead fix your eyes on God and he will change you from the inside out.

Reflection:  God, I want so badly to be renewed, to be changed from the inside out.  I want to be different from this culture I live in.  Why should I feel comfortable in this society when my true home is heaven?

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright April 15, 2012; carolyn a. roth

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