Tag Archives: Gardens

Ezekiel’s Bread

Millet berries, flourThe story of Ezekiel making bread from legumes and grains is told in Ezekiel chapter 4.

Ezekiel was a prophet and priest. About five years after he was deported from Jerusalem, God called Ezekiel to proclaim a message of judgment against the Jewish nation.  Much of the judgment focused on Jerusalem as the political, religious, and social hub of the nation. Ezekiel acted out the siege of Jerusalem in a series of symbolic acts. In the first, Ezekiel drew besieged Jerusalem on a clay tablet. In the second symbolic act, Ezekiel laid bound on his sides for 430 days representing the years of Israel’s and Judah’s sin.

Ezekiel’s third symbolic act about God’s judgment on Jerusalem represented famine. God told Ezekiel to bake a single cake of bread to eat every day. The bread was to be made from wheat, barley, beans, lentils, millet, and spelt. Taken together the grains and legumes were to weigh 20 shekels, equivalent to about 8 ounces. With the bread Ezekiel should drink about 22 ounces (1.4 pints) of water.

While some of these legumes and grains were mixed together to make bread, it was unusual to make bread from all six of them. Several Old Testament scholars reported that the poorest people of the land combined the grains and beans with camel’s milk and oil to make bread; but poverty was not the issue in besieged Jerusalem  (Ezekiel 7:18-21). The problem was that basic foods were so scarce in Jerusalem that people did not have enough of one type of grain, e.g. barley, to make bread. People scoured for any grain or legumes available to make a loaf of bread.

God ended his instructions to Ezekiel on how to prepare the bread by explaining the symbolic meaning of Ezekiel’s activity.  God would break the supply of bread and water to Jerusalem. He would do this so that the Jewish people in Jerusalem would “waste away because of their sin” (Ezekiel 4:17, NIV-SB, 2002). The famine stricken Jerusalemites would be appalled at the sight of each other.


Most likely the Biblical millet was Panicum miliaceum. Supposedly a head of millet produces about 1000 seeds, thus the name miliaceum. Other names include the common millet and in the United States, the broom corn millet. Millet was one of the earliest cereal grains domesticated.  In Mesopotamia, millet dated back to 3000 B.C. No early traces of millet were found in Israel; millet was listed in only one of three Israeli plant databases studied.  Millet is the 6th most important gain in the world and helps feed 1/3 of the world’s population. The fruit is the millet seed. Each ripe cluster contains a multitude of seeds enclosed in a round, hard hull. Hulls are various colors from white through black and are removed via threshing.  The bran or seed coat is always creamy white. Millet is a gluten-free seed that has been described as tasting mildly sweet with a nut-like flavor.  Besides being cultivated for human food, millet is also used for bird and poultry seed.

Symbolism: Famine

Millet occurs once in the Bible, as one grain that Ezekiel used to make bread (Ezekiel 4:9).  P. miliaceum, the smallest of all cereal grains, symbolizes famine which kills millions of people.  Almost every time famine was seen in the Promised Land, it was God’s punishment for Israel’s sins. Often famine resulted from God withholding rains; but sometimes there were other causes of famine. For example, during the time of the prophet Joel, God used locust to create famine in Judah.The famine that God showed to Ezekiel occurred when the Babylonian army encircled Jerusalem, destroyed the produce of the land, and ensured that no one could get in or out of the city.

Although the Babylonians besieged Jerusalem, the famine was God’s punishment on the Jews because they rejected him and worshipped idols. God told Ezekiel that 1/3 third of Jerusalem’s population would die of pestilence or famine, 1/3 would be killed by the sword, and 1/3 would be scattered to the winds with the sword pursuing them (Ezekiel 5:12). God foretold cannibalism in Jerusalem saying that fathers would eat their sons and sons eat their fathers (Ezekiel, 5:10).

Most of us don’t have experience with famine to the point of cannibalism. In fact, most of us have never been seriously hungry. Looking ahead, however, this scenario may be different.   Christ warned his disciple that near the end of the ages, famines and earthquakes would occur in various places (Matthew 24:7, Mark 13:8). Even though we live in the United States with an abundance of food, we should not assume that our country will be exempt from the famine that Christ foretold. At the end of the ages, famine will not be restricted to sub-Saharan Africa or parts of southwest Asia.

In Revelations chapter 7, John recorded that the Lamb opened seven seals. Many scholars interpret the opening of seals as prophecy of what will occur on earth during the Great Tribulation. Opening the fourth seal set free a pale horse (Revelations 6:7-8) with a rider named Death. Hades followed Death. Death and Hades were given authority over ¼ of the earth. They were allowed to kill with the sword, famine, pestilence (epidemic disease), and wild beasts.  These disasters echo the punishment that God inflicted on Judah, whom he selected from all the races, nations, and tribes of the earth as his Chosen People.

Reflection. God punished Jerusalem and the Jews with famine. What does the future hold for you, our nation, and our world?

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright November 14, 2012; carolyn a. roth




Having trouble with wineberry

Reblogged from Mortal Tree posted on July 20, 2016.

Wineberry (Rubus phoenicolasius) fruits on second year canes, this year being the third year my canes have been old enough to fruit but haven’t. The first two years late frost killed the second year canes (very frost sensitive), the later canes for that year coming up strong.

A dead cane and a live one coming from the same root.

This year frost wasn’t to blame. Leaves grew, buds grew, and I was very excited to finally get fruit. In the heat of summer, after growing some very promising looking buds, they are shriveling up and dying without handing over a single druplet. The first year canes look fine.

The same cane with buds a few months earlier.

They’re even in the really happy guild where I have had success getting fruit from the apple (fruiting again this year) and turnip rooted chervil, among others. From what I’ve read about its culture, this site should be kind to it. It’s an invasive species here in several states, although not in my area (yet). I would prefer to not wait until it intoduces itself as a weed in my area to finally get some fruit.

There is an especially good article here about the wonderful production it maintains in shade. Flavor is supposed to be very good too. I have yet to come across information about it being finicky and never making a solitary fruit.

I have very few theories what the problem could be accept some strange disease which I have yet to find the name of.

I find the canes’ furry red spines rather attractive as a winter and spring interest, and the canes’ premature deaths make more mulch for the guild without my giving any attention to pruning. So why not keep them in hopes some year they will decide they’re ready to fruit? Until then, I thought I’d start the conversation about what seems to be a rare problem.

Reblogged from Mortal Tree, June 20, 2016.



Fringe Tree Snowflower

Fringe trees (Chionanthus virginicus)  are a small (12-20 feet), deciduous, ornamental tree that fits perfectly under telephone and utility lines. The botanical name translates as snow flower, which mirrors the fluffy, white flowers that cover trees in bloom. Some people call the fringe tree Grancy graybeard or old man’s beard, but flowers don’t look like a gray beard. Fringe Tree

Fringe trees are native to eastern United States and aren’t commonly seen in the Holy Lands.  Today I saw a fringe tree for sell in a local nursery in Roanoke, Virginia. Trees grow male and female flowers on separate trees. Until the tree bears flowers, it is difficult to discern if it is male or female. Flowers bloom about 2 weeks out of the year.

This beautiful fringe tree was growing in the Hershey Garden in Hershey, PA. Trees in the garden are well-labeled.

The first time I viewed a fringe tree, I was awed by its beauty; however, I could not capture the beauty in a photograph. The flowers didn’t seem to standout from the green limbs and greenish tinge of stems and branches. I had to get a close-up photograph of the flower to see its beauty.Fringe tree flowers

Reflection: I often scan my environment looking for something that stands out and captures my attention. At times I miss true beauty, like the beauty of a fringe tree flower, in these scans. Maybe I should slow down.

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright June 7, 2014, Carolyn A. Roth




Delicate glory

The earth and its people are to glorify God. Synonyms of glory are praise, honor, worship and thanksgiving.

When depicting God’s glory, often scholars and ministers project  pictures of the universe with its many galaxies, stars, and planets. Sometime we are even  shown mountains with beautiful green trees or with fall foliage.

The glory of God is also seen in the delicate beauty of flower petals. I’ve seen the glory of God in a large muscular father, bending down to discuss choosing flowers with his delicate 5 year-old daughter. He modulated his strength, voice and words to the level of his dear child.

That’s what God does with us because in relation to Him, we are so delicate.

Copyright: Carolyn A. Roth, 1/14

Shrimp flower

Shrimp flower

Mustard Seeds are Small Beginnings

Mustard tree Sara

Read Matthew 13:31-32, 17:19-20, and Luke 17:5-6 for some of Christ’s teachings on mustard trees and seeds.  

Christ used the mustard seed several times in his ministry.  The first time Christ talked about the mustard seed was in a parable about the kingdom of heaven. Christ told the crowd that the kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed, one of the smallest of all seeds. Yet when planted in a field, the seed becomes a large garden plant. Birds come and perch on tree branches. The meaning of this parable is that although the kingdom of heaven begins small, it will expand throughout the entire world. People from all nations will take refuge in it.

On another occasion, Christ used the mustard seed to illustrate faith. In Caesarea Philippi, a man asked Jesus to heal his son who was possessed by a demon (Matthew 17:14-21). Christ’s disciples had tried, but were unable to heal the boy. Christ rebuked the demon and it came out of the child. The disciples asked Christ why they were unable to heal the man’s son. Christ responded that the disciples had too little faith. If they had faith the size of a mustard seed, the disciples could say to a mountain, “Move from here to there” and the mountain would move.  Christ’s point was that nothing – not even casting out a demon — is impossible with enough faith.

The Mustard Plant

Some  scholars and botanists believe that the Biblical mustard seed and tree was the Brassica nigra. Brassica nigra is also known as Sinapis nigra, black mustard, and shortpod mustard. Others believe it was the Salvadora perscia commonly called the toothbrush tree. I favor the Salvadora because it is a larger plant than the black and better able to accommodate birds resting in its branches.  The toothbrush tree grows up to 20 feet in comparison than the much shorter black mustard plant. The mustard tree grows throughout arid Africa and the Middle East. The mustard tree grows in the Judean Desert, Dead Sea Valley (around Ein Gedi) and in southern Israel deserts. Pilgrims to Israel can see the mustard tree growing in the Biblical Landscape Reserve between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem.

Symbolism: Faith

From early Christian times, the mustard seed has been associated with faith. As a young girl, I was given a necklace with a single mustard seed inside a clear heart. The mustard seed was tiny.  It reminded me that if I had even a little faith, nothing was impossible to accomplish as long as it was God’s will for my life. The dictionary defines faith as a firm belief in something or someone for which there is no proof. The implication of that definition is that there is no proof of God. Yet, a popular Christian song says, “I talked to him this morning.”  In fact, I talk to God all the time and God talks to me. He talks to me through the Scriptures, through other people, and through my conscience. God is really good about convicting me of transgressions against his holiness and I appreciate his ongoing discipline. Part of my role in the ongoing dialogue between God and me is wanting God’s input and staying attentive to it. 

Through the work of the Holy Spirit, a small religious group known initially as “The Way” grew into a world-wide religion that has lasted for 2000 years. The disciples of The Way had faith in God and shared their faith with other individuals, who shared their faith with others, who shared their faith with others. Today, we have a world-wide communion of Christian believers. My minister tells us that our present age is more like that of the first and second century Way than any other time in the history of the Church. Christians are no longer in the majority in Westernized countries including Europe, Britain, Australia, and the United States; while, Christians in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia must worship underground and are dying for their Christian faith. The Christian faith is ridiculed and Christians are mocked and declared intolerant.

Individuals who follow The Way should not be surprised by the negative behavior directed toward them. Christ and the early apostles warned us that Christians would be persecuted for their faith (John 15:20; 2 Timothy 3: 12). Our goal during this time of persecution is to have faith, even faith the size of a mustard seed. When we have faith, we can move mountains and trees. With faith we can accomplish great things for Christ and live The Way he taught us to live both by his words and his actions. So what if we are scorned for our Christian faith? So what if we are called bigots, intolerant, etc. for our faith? So what if our careers dead-end for our faith or friendships are lost? Didn’t these same things happen to Christ? There is no reason to think that we, Christ’s servants, will be treated any different from the way our master was treated. A key to a Christian life is to have faith in all circumstances, counting on Christ to not only be the author but the perfecter of our faith (Hebrews 12:2).

Reflection.  How does faith in Christ ease the circumstances of your life?

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright January 20, 2013; Carolyn A. Roth


Avoid planting Impatiens this year.

Bloggers,  At the Master Gardener meeting this morning we learned that gardeners probably should not buy impatiens this year, particularly Impatiens walleriana and Impatiens balsamina — these are sold as Fusion, Fiesta, Patchwood and Butterfly impatiens. They are prone to powdery mildew which can infect your soil and other plants. New Guiena impatiens for baskets are still okay.

John the Baptist: No Weak Reed

????????????Christ description of John the Baptist as no feeble reed is in Luke 7:18-35.

About to begin his public ministry, Jesus went John to be baptized.  John preached a baptism for the repentance of sin. At first John declined to baptize Jesus recognizing that Christ was the sinless son of God. John persuaded John to baptize him by saying that the baptism was necessary to fulfill all righteousness (Matthew 3:13). To fulfill all righteousness indicated that Jesus was consecrated to God and officially approved by him. 

Soon after the baptism of Christ, King Herod Antipas imprisoned John. John openly disapproved of Herod’s marriage to Herodias, Herod’s brother’s wife (Matthew 14:3-5).  Herod divorced his first wife to marry Herodias. John’s prison was Machaerus, Herod’s fortress-palace on the east side of the Dead Sea. 

While imprisoned, John sent two of his disciples to Galilee to ask Christ, “are you the one who was to come, or should we expect someone else” (Luke 7:19). Christ did not give John’s disciples a direct “Yes” or “No” answer. Instead he told them to go back to John and report what they saw and heard, e.g., the blind received their sight, the lame walked, and lepers were cured.

After John’s messenger left, Christ asked the crowd what they expected when they went to the desert to see John: a reed swaying in the wind, a man dressed in fine clothes, or a prophet?  When Christ asked the crowd if they expected to see a swaying reed, he was referring to the firmness of John’s conviction and message. John’s message did not depend on his audience. He had the same message for tax collectors, religious leaders, and rulers:  repent, for the kingdom of heaven is a hand. John was not politically correct.  He never altered his message to accommodate an audience. He was a straight reed that did not sway from of his convictions; thus, his imprisonment and death.

The Reed

The reed that Christ alluded to was the Arundo donax, known as the giant reed or the Cypress cane. The giant reed was introduced into the Middle East and Europe from the sub-continent of Asia. The largest colonies are located on the banks of natural water courses, in floodplains of medium or large sized streams, and in dry river banks far from permanent water sources. Often the reed is found where water sources have been physically disturbed or dammed.  In Israel A. donax grows throughout the country from Mount Hermon to the Negev Desert. At one time, botanist thought the giant reed could not tolerate salt and maritime exposure; however, giant reeds have grown on sand dunes near seashores, e.g. the Sharon Plain. It tolerates strong winds and just about any type of soil. The giant reed will not grow in the shade.

Symbolism: Conviction, Convict

In the vignette of John the Baptist and the swaying reed, the symbolism is conviction. A conviction is a firmly held belief that something is true, real, and certain. John lived his convictions; he stayed on message (repentance) and on task (baptizing). My husband calls John “a straight arrow” because John did not deviate from his convictions. John was like the long straight culms of the giant reed which grew along the Jordan River where John baptized repentant sinners. 

Today the world has an even stronger voice than that of John to convict us of sin. The Holy Spirit is in the world to convict individuals of sin, righteousness, and judgment (John 16:8). The Holy Spirits convicts individuals of original sin and their need to repent, accept Christ as Savior, and be baptized. At the same time Holy Spirit has a convicting role in the lives of Christians as well. If we listen, the Holy Spirit tells us which parts of their lives are righteous and which are sinful. Then we can make sound judgments about aspects of our lives to change.   

Jude wrote that God and his holy ones will convict sinners about the harsh words that they have spoken against him (Jude 1:15). Sometimes Christians speak harshly about God when they do not get their own way, or do not understand reasons for circumstances in their lives.  At times, we laugh at jokes about God. Years ago I heard a joke about the Holy Spirit. I am still stunned that anyone had the temerity to joke about God’s spirit (Mark 3:29). Rarely do we speak up when an individual disrespects God by cursing or discounts the Holy Scriptures. Both laughter and silence imply agreement and can be as harsh as outspoken words against God.      

John could have been silent when Herod divorced his first wife so he could marry his brother’s wife. He wasn’t silent and he paid for his out-spoken convictions with his life. I wonder if we as Christians should speak out more often on the rampant immorality in our world. Yes, we will get push-back and that push-back may label us as intolerant, bigots, etc. Our reputations may be shredded as a result of speaking our convictions. John the Baptist cared more about his convictions than his reputation in the world.

Prayer: God, please give us men and women today who have convictions and beliefs and are not buffeted by winds of change and political correctness. Lord, give our churches and society men and women who will speak up for you.

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright May 13, 2013; Carolyn A. Roht