Tag Archives: Carolyn Roth Ministry

Narcissus — Connect with Memory

Bible Reference: Isaiah 35.1-2.

Multiple types of narcissus (daffodils) are present in the twenty-first century because horticulturists developed many cultivars. The narcissus that grows in Israel is the Narcissus tazetta, commonly referred to as a daffodil. Neither words, narcissus nor daffodil, are present in the Bible; however, botanists and Bible scholars proposed that the narcissus was referenced twice:

  1. The desert and the parched land will be glad; the wilderness will rejoice and blossom. “Like the crocus it will burst into bloom; it will rejoice greatly and shout for joy” (Isaiah 35.1-2 NIV). Although the NIV Bible translates the flower in this reference as crocus, other Bible translations referred to the plant as narcissus.
  2. Solomon’s bride said that she is the Rose of Sharon (Song of Songs 2.1). In Hebrew, she named herself ha’bazlith or bazlith (bazluth), meaning “she is pealing,” or she has many layers, literally layers of an onion-like flower bulb which would be the narcissus.

Most of us know what a daffodil looks like. They grow in USA gardens and are for sale in stores in late winter and early spring. The Bible daffodil was a different variety than the beautiful yellow blooms that we plant or purchase. The Narcissus tazetta has white or cream-colored petals (usually six) surrounding a central orange-yellow cup. Often, bulbs are planted in the fall before the first frost.

Bulbs grow underground and while they may appear similar to an onion bulb they lack the classic onion odor. The bulb is the deadliest portion of the narcissus plant because it can be confused with the wild onion and because the bulb contains the highest concentrations of a toxic chemical, lycorine. Eating any part of narcissus can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Although never reported in humans, more severe problems, such as low blood pressure, drowsiness, and liver damage were reported in animals that ate large amounts of narcissus, particularly bulbs. The narcissus bulb contains a second poisonous chemical, oxalates, which are microscopic and needle-like. When ingested, oxalates cause severe burning and irritation of the lips, tongue, and throat.

Before I started to research the Bible narcissus, I was unaware of the relationship of the narcissus/daffodil flower to the Warsaw Jewish Ghetto Uprising in 1943. Uprising-commander, Marek Edelman placed daffodils at the foot of the Warsaw Ghetto Fighters Monument each year until his death. The monument was created in 1948 to remember the brave people (Jews and Poles) who fought and mostly perished in the Warsaw Ghetto uprising. Narcissus paper pins and fresh flowers are part of a campaign to “Connect through Memory.”

Today, the symbolism of narcissus is “new birth.” The great Christian theologian and author of over fifty books, John Piper23 averred that “new birth” has three parts. What happens in new birth isn’t:

  1. About getting new religion, but, getting new life. Obtaining new birth is acknowledging your inability to live without a Savior.
  2. Merely affirming the supernatural Jesus, but, experiencing the supernatural in Jesus yourself. I think of the supernatural within as the Holy Spirit that begins with new birth.
  3. Improvement of the old human nature; but, creation of a new nature (the nature we were meant to be) in each of us. We are forgiven and cleansed by the indwelling Spirit of God.

Reflection: Clearly, having a rebirth through Jesus Christ should move self-worship to God-worship. That movement is a process. It doesn’t happen all at once and it doesn’t happen if we aren’t intentional about making it happen. If you want to be more intentional about putting God front-and-center in your life, what could you do? Is attending church necessary? Is attending church all you need to do? Ponder what would happen if each resident of the USA made an intentional effort to worship God rather than himself/herself.

Copyright December 19, 2019; Carolyn A. Roth

Please visit my website for more information on Bible plants: www. Carolyn Roth Ministry.com.

Rooted in God 2

Rooted in God 2

Description: Like us, plants groan under the impact of sin in the world. They wait in eager expectation for a new earth to be revealed.

Most people are unaware that the Bible mentions over 125 different plants. Yet, Holy Scriptures contain no excess information or “filler.” Every scripture is given by God’s and is valuable for instruction in holy living. Whether a fruit tree, cereal grain, or thistle, each plant has a purpose in Bible stories.

Plants had meanings in ancients’ lives, and that meaning extends to Christian lives of 21st individuals. We can learn, or perhaps refused to learn, Godly lessons from Bible plants.

Where to Purchase: www.Amazon.com or  www.CarolynRothMinistry.com.

Recommendation: This is a fun-to-read, educational book ~ a delightful surprise! Carolyn combines her vast knowledge as a Bible scholar and Master Gardener to enrich familiar Bible stories with background history as well as with fascinating facts about the often overlooked plants that are mentioned in these stories. She then adapts her plant messages to challenge the reader to examine their own life and faith. Thank you, Carolyn, for making all these unexpected connections for our benefit. – Kathy Dudley

 

What an Awful Name: Dove’s Dung

Bible Reference: 2 Kings 6.24-7.20.

The king of Aram, Ben-Hadad, mobilized his entire army and attacked Israel (Northern Kingdom) besieging its capital, Samaria. Probably, the attack occurred around 850 BC when Joram was king of the northern tribes.  Elisha was still the main prophet in the Northern Kingdom and remained in Samaria during the siege. The siege lasted so long that a famine occurred throughout the city. People were starving. Cannibalism occurred.  A donkey’s head sold for eighty silver shekels and a pint of seed pods for five shekels.

In the siege of Samaria, the writer used a pint of flower bulbs to demonstrate food scarcity.  A comparison is that in ancient Israel, the value of a male child, one month through five years-of-age, was five silver shekels, while the value of a female child was three silver shekels.

Many botanists and Bible scholars agreed that the cab was from the Ornithogalum umbellatum.  The popular name of this plant is the star of Bethlehem because the flower’s six petals are reminiscent of the star over Bethlehem at Jesus’s birth. Another name for this plant is “dove’s dung,” a distasteful name for a beautiful plant.  Most likely the name came from Hebrews viewing large fields containing the white star of Bethlehem flower in the spring.  From a distance, the small white flowers appeared like dove’s droppings.

Whether or not the star of Bethlehem plant was edible generated much discussion. Reading the arguments,  the noted plant scholar, Dr. James Duke, harvested a few bulbs from his lawn.14 After boiling them vigorously, he ate one.  To Duke, the bulbs tasted similar to soap and had a bitter aftertaste.  He added salt and found that the taste improved. Because Duke experienced some shortness of breath following the ingestion of only two bulbs, he concluded he would need to be near starvation to eat star of Bethlehem bulbs.

Figure 7.1, Ornithogalum umbellatum (Star of Bethlehem).

In the United States, the star of Bethlehem is sometimes considered an invasive weed, but, other individuals value the flower for its delicate beauty. Beauty and value depends on an individual’s perspective. I planted both white and pink star of Bethlehem bulbs in the church Bible garden. Plants multiplied through corm (small bulb) division; each year I have more star of Bethlehem flowers that grow in the garden.

Value is something intrinsically desirable.3  In several places, Bible writers presented perspectives on what was valued and valuable:

1. Moses regarded disgrace for the sake of God as more valuable than treasures of Egypt.

2. Israelite proverbs averred that kings value a man who speaks the truth.

3. A husband of a wife of noble character lacked nothing of value.

4. In Paul’s first letter to his beloved disciple Timothy, Paul reminded Timothy that “Physical training is of some value, but godliness has value for all things” (1Timothy 4.8 NIV).

God considers his people, both Israelites and Christians, valuable.  Jesus told disciples to stop worrying about what they would eat or drink by using ravens as an example.  Ravens are a fairly large, black bird with a shrill voice and aggressive manner. Normally, ravens aren’t considered attractive birds.  Ravens don’t sow or reap, nor do they have storerooms or barns; yet, God feeds them. Jesus reminded and reassured disciples that they were more valuable to God than birds, and that God would meet their needs.

Jesus attempted to teach individuals to think about and even change what they valued. He told a parable of a man who searched for just the right pearl.  When the man found the pearl of great value, he sold all his belongings and bought it. This parable can be compared to a person seeking truth and meaning in life.  Once they find God, all possessions become secondary in comparison to following God.

On another occasion, Jesus’s teaching on what was valued and valuable didn’t reassure listeners, i.e., Jesus taught about trust using a parable of a shrewd manager. The Pharisees who loved money were listening and sneering at Jesus.  Aware of their actions and hearts, Jesus said to them, “What is highly valued (i.e., money) among men is detestable in God’s sight” (Luke 16.15 NIV). Jesus likened the love of money to a master or a god.  He told his disciples that they can’t serve both God and money.

Reflection: I value my relationship with Jesus, my husband, my church, and my family. Who or what do you value? Who are you giving your allegiance to? God? The world? Money? What would increase service to God, and less service to worldly causes, look like in your life?

Copyright: 12/18/2019; Carolyn Adams Roth

Please visit my website for more information about Bible plants: http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com

Captured by Seaweed

macrocystis-pyrifera-1

Reference: Jonah 2:5

The story of Jonah is about disobedience and redemption. Most children know that Jonah disobeyed God when God told him to go to Nineveh and preach repentance to the city. Jonah didn’t want to go there, so he got on a ship bound for Tarshish in the opposite direction from Nineveh. Jonah believed that if he left the land of the Israelites, he could escape God.

A huge storm occurred in the Mediterranean Sea. Even the experienced sailors were frightened. They decided to cast lots to see who had disobeyed their god and brought the storm on them. The lot fell to Jonah. He admitted that he was disobeying God and recommended that the sailors throw him overboard. Reluctantly, the ship’s sailors threw Jonah overboard. Once Jonah was off the ship, the storm abated, and the ship proceeded on its way.

A large fish swallowed Jonah. Jonah’s prayed and called out to God while he was in the belly of the giant fish. Later Jonah wrote about the experience (Jonah chapter 2) so we read what happened to him and what he thought. Jonah described how the sea waters closed over him and sea weeds wrapped around his head.  Jonah noted that he was at the roots of the mountains in the ocean suggesting that he fell to the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea.  Jonah remained in the belly of the fish three days. Then, the fish vomited up Jonah onto dry land. (Ugh, I bet he was slimy). The land was on the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea, not all that far from Nineveh. When Jonah went to Nineveh and preached repentance, the Ninevehites repented.

Sea Weed

The Bible referenced seaweed only once (Jonah 2:5, NIV). Although the New International Version translated the plant that wrapped around Jonah’s head as seaweed, other sources translated it as “weed” (ESV) or as “eelgrass” (Douglas & Tenney, 2011). I have a problem with the translation of eelgrass because eelgrass is generally confined to tidal water and grows out to a water depth of 35 feet.  A close reading of Jonah chapter 1 suggested that the ship Jonah was on was away from land and out into the Mediterranean Sea when the storm hit.

My research indicates that the seaweed referred to by Jonah may have been the Macrocystis pyrifera also known as brown seaweed. It is a marine alga and known as the Sequoia of the sea because it can grow 45 meters (about 147 foot) in length.  It grows in the Mediterranean Sea. The stalks are thin and readily float through the waters. It could have easily wrapped around Jonah’s neck. Currently, it is eaten as a good source of minerals.

brown-kelp

Symbolism:  Captured

Perhaps the type of plant is not as important as what it symbolized. The sea weed captured Jonah. Capture means catching, winning, or gaining control by force. Capture is exactly what the seaweed did to Jonah. He was captured so that the giant fish could swallow him.

I have been captured, or caught, by Christ and I am so glad. Now, I have to stop struggling and let God control my life.  The problem, or perhaps not so much a problem, is that God won’t control me by force. Bummer, I wish God would just “make” me do the right things. But, He doesn’t operate that way. I have to willingly give my life to Him.  That is really difficult for me to do because I have been used to controlling my own life and future.  You know:  “I am a self- made woman.” “I can do it myself.”

Reflection: What about you? Are you willing to let God capture you? Will you willing and totally yield to God?

Copyright: January 5, 2017; Carolyn A. Roth

Please visit my website for other information: www.CarolynRothMinistry.com

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Poisonous weed in the Bible

Picture

(Black henbane)

Bible Reference: Hosea 10.5.

Hosea was a prophet in the Northern Kingdom, composed of the ten northern tribes of Israel that separated from Judah. Almost immediately these Northern Kingdom tribes began to worship idols. Hosea attempted to win them from their idolatry. Despite his words and those of other prophets, most individuals and kings of the Northern Kingdom ignored fair dealings outlined by Moses. Many acted dishonestly. Consequently, Hosea told them:

“They make many promises, take false oaths and make agreement; therefore, lawsuits spring up like poisonous weeds in a plowed field” (Hosea 10.5 NIV).

In Holy Lands, there are several other plants that are poisonous and grow in cultivated fields.  Israeli botanist, Michael Zohary, identified species of Hyoscyamus as poisonous plants. Hyoscyamus grows in very dry areas, such as in plowed fields in most of Israel.  In Israel, the most common henbane is golden henbane (H. aureus), which grows from between rocks on the Western Wall (Wailing Wall).

Hyoscyamus is a  small genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The henbane plant is toxic to mankind if consumed, breathed, or contacted. The plant is deemed so poisonous that the smell of flowers can cause dizziness. If consumed in large quantities, henbane plants may cause extremely high blood pressure, coma, and convulsions. Because breathing the flower causes hallucinations, some cultures use henbane as a recreational drug.

(golden henbane)

When farmers see the henbane in a plowed field, they remove plants immediately. Because the henbane has characteristics of parsley, parsnips, and wild carrots, children have eaten it.

Henbane has a long taproot; consequently, surface plowing, as was done in ancient Israel, couldn’t remove the entire taproot. Attempting to pull the henbane didn’t always have a positive result. Henbane tops break off when pulled from dry soil, but roots remain in the soil and regrow. Eradicating the poisonous henbane weed from a field was difficult in ancient Israel. Today, westernized gardeners and farmers rely on herbicides to kill the henbane plant.

Just as henbane continued to grow in a plowed field and had the potential to poison livestock and man, the effects of false promises and oaths haunted and eventually destroyed the Northern Kingdom.  In shorter than fifty years (c. 721 BC) after Hosea’s prophecy, the Northern Kingdom fell to the Assyrian army.

Reflection: The Hebrew word for henbane is shikkeron (shikrona). One definition of shikkeron is “intoxication.” Was there a message in naming the henbane “intoxication” that descendants of  Israelite immigrants into Canaan should have contemplated and applied to their lives in this “new world?” What message should we living in the United States take from a Bible plant named shikkeron?

Copyright 12/18/19: Carolyn A. Roth

Please visit my website for more information on plants in the Bible: http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com

Strange Vine: Devolvement

Bible Reference: Jeremiah 2.21.

Historically, the domesticated grape vine and vineyards were associated with Israelites. Israelites went from being a choice vine, planted with sound and reliable vine  stock, to a strange (corrupt, foreign) vine. The alteration between a choice versus strange vine occurred because Israelites turned from God.

In the Ancient Near East, the grape vine was the Vitis vinefera. Archeology records suggested that the V. vinefera was domesticated in the Late Stone Age, which in the Ancient Near East ended about 3000 BC. After the Flood (Deluge) and during the era of Israelite patriarchs, grapes, and grape vines were V. vinefera.

Vitis orientalis was the wild grape from which the Israelite grapevine was domesticated. A major difference between the wild and domesticated grape vine was what the two vines produced. The wild grape vine bears red fruit, like red currents. These small red, sometimes black, berries have an acid taste and are considered worthless by individuals living in the Middle East. In contrast, the domesticated grapevine produces succulent, large grapes which could be eaten fresh, dried into raisins for winter consumption, and made into wine.

Wild grapes (undomesticated) have male and female flowers on separate plants.  Unless different-sex vines are planted in proximity to each other and the wind or a pollinator (insect, such as a bee) carries pollen from the male to the female flower, the flower won’t develop into a fruit.

When mankind domesticated the grape, they developed a grape variety (V. vinefera) in which the vine produced both male and female flowers. Opportunity for the grape flower to remain unpollinated was reduced substantially. Plants that contain both male and female flowers are called “perfect” or “complete. ”

The Plant

In Jeremiah’s allegory, we read that Israelites, a complete grape vine (V. vinefera), became a wild vine (V. orientalis). The choicest vine went backward to an earlier version. This wild vine once again produced red, hard, acid-tasting fruit. No longer did it produce juicy grapes. A further explanation is found in the English Standard Version Bible which reads, “you turned degenerate and became a wild vine” (Jeremiah 2.21 ESV).

Interpretation

Degenerate means immoral, corrupt, perverted, wicked, or deteriorated.3 How did it happen that God’s chosen people, who were to be his light in the world, devolve to such an extent? Apparently, Israelites made a conscious decision to stop serving God. On high hills and under spreading trees, Israelites set up idols.

Jeremiah wrote that despite Israelites turning their backs on God. When trouble hit their country, Israelites entreated God to come and save them. Jeremiah recorded God’s response to the degenerate Israelites—get the gods you made yourself to come and save you in your trouble.

In the United States of America (USA), most twenty-first century Christians read Jeremiah chapter two and don’t relate to his message. They don’t set up idols under trees and worship them. They are (nominally) Christians. The USA, the richest and most powerful country in the world, was founded primarily by religious groups. Almost everyone knows about the Puritans and Quakers who believed in God and wanted freedom to live out those beliefs.

Reflection: USA citizens don’t worship idols—how absolutely obscene to even suggest that they do! There is no comparison between them and Israelites in the Promised Land. USA citizens would never act like Israelites acted! Most assuredly, USA citizens haven’t degenerated! The USA is a Christian nation. They remain complete and perfect. Or, maybe not. Think about both scenarios, i.e., degenerating into a strange vine and remaining as a strong, productive vine. The distance between the two isn’t all that far.

Copyright July 10, 2019; Carolyn A. Roth

Madder Vine, Blowing in the Wind

Bible Reference: Exodus 1.15-20; Judges 10.1.

Some Bible persons were named after plants. Puah means madder in Hebrew. One of the Israelite midwives in Egypt was named Puah. We have little information about her, other than that she willfully disobeyed the pharaoh of Egypt to save Israelite newborn sons. In response to her brave actions, God gave Puah a family of her own. Tola’s father was named Puah. Tola was a judge for twenty-three years in early years after Israelites entered the Promised Land. Tola and his father, Puah, were from the tribe of Issachar.

The Plant

In Israel, madder is an evergreen perennial vine (Rubia tinctorial, R. tinctorium). Madder vines can reach a length of six feet; each vine is only about one-fourth inch in diameter. I planted madder seeds where they received afternoon sun. They grew vigorously. Roots ran under the ground to spring up as much as six-feet from the original planting site. Roots contain a compound, alizarin, that is brilliant red. At one time this compound was used to dye military jackets (red coats) of British soldiers. When animals eat roots, milk, urine and bones can turn red.

Supposedly, the madder plant climbs on trees and posts; however, I couldn’t train vines to climb a trellis. They just sprawled on soil, going in multiple directions. The vine wanted to take over the entire section of the garden. The madder vine feels rough. The feel comes from leaves which are prickly on the top. On the underside, leaves are covered with tiny spines which adds to their rough texture. Flowers aren’t distinctive, appearing yellow-green with five petals. Madder vine grows from seeds, produced in the fruit. Seeds are initially red, but turn black when mature.

The Message

The Hebrew word for Puah is puvvâh, from the primary root word, pâ’âh which means “to blow away” in the sense of scatter into corners. The symbolism of madder comes from its Hebrew root. In ancient Israel, the cycle of apostasy, repentance, and redemption presented in Judges was repeated for centuries. Finally, God scattered Israelites throughout Assyrian and Babylonian Empires.

Jesus gave listeners a powerful word on scattering. He said, “He who doesn’t gather with me scatters” (Matthew 12.30 NIV). If Christians don’t gather individuals into the kingdom of heaven, they are in effect allowing them to be scattered.

Reflection: At the end of each day, ask yourself if you gathered or scattered for God that day. When you stand before God’s judgement seat, how will you feel when you realize that some individuals aren’t there because of your lack of effort? You left them scattered in the world without Jesus.

Copyright: July 2, 2019; Carolyn A. Roth