Category Archives: Plants in the Wisdom Literature

David Learns from the Laurel Tree

Leaves on Laurus nobilisThe green laurel tree symbolizing the accomplishment of wicked men is found in Psalm 37.

Psalm 37 was written by King David probably in his later years. Each stanza depicts a complete thought; yet, taken together, all stanzas develop a common theme. In Psalm 37, the common theme is how the wicked flourish. The wicked man’s brief accomplishments are contrasted with God’s continued and sustaining help to the righteous. Several stanzas in Psalm 37 refer to plants.

Christians should not be envious of those who do wrong even when the wicked seem to have everything going for them. The wicked are like the grass, like green plants they die away (Psalm 37:1-2). The wicked are the Lord’s enemies and like the beauty of the fields, they will vanish (Psalm 37:20). Think about wild flowers that grow in the green areas between divided interstate roadways. One week these wild flowers are green, lush, and abundant. A few weeks later they are withered. Road crews mow them down as if they were weeds. Their transient beauty vanishes like smoke; so will wicked men.

Verses 35 and 36 compared wicked men to the green laurel tree.  David wrote that he saw a wicked and ruthless man who flourished like a green tree in its native soil. David’s laurel tree never suffered the setback that comes from transplanting. The tree was in its native soil, thus grew large and vigorous. The wicked man was correspondingly prosperous and powerful. A short time later, however, David looked for the wicked man. He was gone; David could not find him. David’s wisdom was that the wicked do not endure; they have no staying power.

David cautioned his listeners not to fret when they saw wicked, ruthless men prospering.  Fretting leads to evil (Psalm 37:8-9). Instead David implored the righteous to refrain from anger and to hope in the Lord. In a later Psalm, David averred that the righteous will flourish like a palm tree (Psalm 92:12-14); the righteous will grow like a cedar of Lebanon planted in the house of the Lord. They will still bear fruit in old age and stay fresh and green.

Bay LeavesThe Laurel Tree

The laurel tree is the Laurus nobilis. The laurel tree is called the true laurel and the sweet bay laurel because the culinary seasoning bay leaves come from the tree. Bay laurel is native to the southern Mediterranean Sea region. In Israel, laurel trees grow in most areas except the desert. The laurel tree will grow in a wide variety of soils, e.g., sand, loam and clay, but does best in moisture-retentive soils. Leaves are elliptic to ovate in shape and  2-4 inches long and .75-1.75 inches wide. Leaf margins tend to undulate softly; leaves feel leathery.  The leaf surface is a lustrous dark green. One way to identify a laurel tree is to bruise or cut the leaves and smell the sweet aromatic leaves.

Symbolism:  Flourish

A number of writers have proposed symbolism for the Laurus nobilis to include notable, victory, merit, accomplishments, honor, praise, martyrdom, and old age. Psalm 37 seems to fit most of these concepts; however, I believe the best description is flourish. Flourish means to grow luxuriantly, to achieve success or prosper, and to reach a height of development or influence.

King David compared the wicked to a luxuriant laurel tree, perhaps the one about 60 feet tall with a broad canopy and numerous branches growing up from the ground. These wicked, ruthless men flourished like the laurel. They achieved wealth and influence, caring little who they stepped on to achieve. Righteous men see these same ruthless men and women today and ask, how can God let them get ahead when I’m stuck in this job year after year? I’m a Christian, isn’t God supposed to help and bless me? What about God’s promise that “in his days the righteous will flourish; prosperity will abound until the moon is no more” (Psalm 72:7). I’m not flourishing at work or __________(you fill in the blank)!

When believers encounter situations where the wicked seem to achieve everything their heart’s desire, it is time to remember that God cannot lie and his word tells us two important facts. First, the righteous will flourish (Psalm 92:12) and God will not forsake his faithful ones (Psalm 37:28). Second, evildoers will be forever destroyed (Psalm 37:20; Psalm 92:7). Our reaction to evil-doers should not be envy but sadness and prayer for their redemption. The only heaven, or nearest heaven, that wicked, ruthless men and women will experience is on earth.

Seeing ruthless men and women achieve is not easy for a believer. At times I’ve asked God, “how can you let this happen?”  In those times, God did not give me an answer; probably because I was not in a mind frame to receive it. In retrospect, I can see that instead of anger and resentment, my response to workplace wickedness should have been compassion and prayer. I cannot be responsible for evil, ruthless men and women flourishing. I am only responsible for my thoughts and behavior. At all times, I must be right with God, trusting that his ways are not my ways and his thoughts are not my thoughts (Isaiah 55:8). They are much, better and wiser than mine. When I concentrate on flourishing in the garden where God planted me, I don’t obsess about whether or not ruthless individuals are getting ahead.

Reflection.  Father knows best.

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at

Copyright February 8, 2013; carolyn a. roth


Job and Salt Herbs

Atriplex halimus fruitJob’s lament about being disdain by men who gather salt herbs is in Job 30:1-15.

Job was a non-Jewish man who worshiped God and was upright in his conduct and dealings with others (Job 1: 1-5). Job lived during the second millennium B.C. in the land of Uz, probably located in present day Jordan. When the book of Job begins, we see God giving Satan permission to test Job’s righteousness and loyalty to God. God allows Satan to do anything to Job except kill him (Job 1:6–2:10). The result is that Satan kills Job’s children, destroys Job’s home, deprives Job of his wealth, and afflicts him with painful boils from the soles of his feet to the top of his head. Shortly after these calamities, three of Job’s friends visit him to extend comfort. Most of the Book of Job consists of discourses between Job and the three friends (Job chapters 3–37).  We read Job’s struggle to understand his losses while still retaining faith in God.

In Job 29, Job described how he longs for months gone by when God watched over him. He would walk to the city gate and take his seat in the public square. Young men saw him and stepped aside, old men rose to their feet at his presence. Chief men and nobles listened to his words and all spoke well of him. Now (chapter 30) Job’s life is totally different. He is mocked by younger men whose fathers were dregs of society, e.g., men who Job would not have hired to put with his sheep dogs. In Job’s days, dogs were not pets; they were filthy and viscous. When Job said that men were not fit to keep company with his dogs, it was a grave insult.

Job continued describing the fathers of the mockers. They were haggard from deprivation and hunger. The men roamed desolate places to gather food such as salt herbs and the roots of broom trees. Herb salt leaves were food of the very poor and eaten in times of famine. That the sons of such men now mocked, spit on, and used Job’s name as an epithet was terrifying to Job.

Salt Herb

The salt herb in Job was most likely the Atriplex halimus known as the salt plant, and shrubby orache.  It was native to Northern and tropical Africa, the Middle East including Israel, and southern Europe.  Salt plants grow well in nutritionally poor soils to include sand as long as the soil is well drained. In Israel the salt herb is distributed in deserts, the Dead Sea Valley, and Sharon Plain. It grows best in full sun. If planted in shade, stems become weak and spindly with sparse foliage. The salt plant is damaged by frosts. Leaves and stem are nutritious and have been described as a pot-like spinach; however, American’s will find the salt herb tastes salty and unlike the popular spinach leaf used in salads. In addition to humans eating stems and leaves, animals consume the plant as fodder. Ash from burning the A. helimus is used as the alkali in soap making.

Symbolism: Salt, Seasoning

The symbolism of the salt herb is salt and season. In Hebrew, mallûwach is the word for the salt herb.  Mallûwach is derived from the primary root word mâlach which means to salt or season. Salt can be used to preserve food. A seasoning is a substance that adds flavoring, interest, or excitement.  Salt was a familiar seasoning to the Israelites.  In Leviticus God told the Israelites to use salt to season all grain offerings.  The salt that was to accompany grain offerings was called the “salt of the covenant” (Leviticus 2:13).  Salt symbolized and sealed the promises made between the Israelites and God when a grain offering was made.

In the New Testament Christ identified that salt was good; however, if salt lost its taste or flavor, it might as well be thrown out and trampled by men (Matthew 5:13).  He told his disciples to “have salt in themselves and be at peace with each other” (Mark 9:50).  When Christians have salt, they are anything but blah. Christianity does not depersonalize an individual.  Christianity allows us to be zestful, flavorful, excited, interesting/interested, and tasty.

Generally, the basis for living at peace with others is what and how we talk to them. Christian’s conversation should be full of grace and seasoned with salt (Colossians 4:6). At no time should unwholesome talk come from our months (Ephesians 4:29). Instead we should learn what others need and talk about things that will build them up. If our words have these qualities, those who listen can benefit.

At times Christian salt and seasoning will have no effect or even a negative effect on individuals.  What do we do then?  Do we become angry, cynical, indifferent, or uninvolved with the world?  In Life as a Vapor, John Piper (2004) wrote “the salt of the earth does not mock rotten meat.”  Piper contended that where possible we season others with our salt and lead them to Christ.  Where we cannot, we weep and pray. We never shrug our shoulders and say “it’s your choice” to people living in darkness. We labor to give them a taste of Christ.

Reflection. Christ said, “everyone will be salted with fire” (Mark 9:49). What do you think he meant by that statement?   Everyone includes Christians.

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at

Copyright January 18, 2013; carolyn a. roth