Category Archives: Plants in Holy Week

Passion Flower and Fruit

Passiflora edulis commonly called passion flower, grows prolifically in Israel. It is a perennial vine with tendrils that help the vine to climb over trellis, fences, and sides of buildings. Passion flower is herbaceous and in colder climates dies to the ground. Supposedly, it grows in Plant Zones 5 – 9 in the United State. Passiflora edulis is thought to be drought tolerant and attracts butterflies therefore has the potential to be a popular plant. It grows in full sun to part shade.

In the United States, this passion flower is native in southeastern states. Although here in Virginia the Passiflora flower is purple, my friend in Missouri has a plant which looks identical and is named Passiflora incarnate and the flower is white. The fruit from the flower is named Maypops because it gives forth a popping sound when stepped on. Maypops are green in the summer and became yellowish in the fall. They are edible. When opened, the Maypop fruit is comprised of opaque, white, little balls. The little balls are juicy and taste like lemons. If used to make lemonade, the ade will taste like it has too much water. The taste of the maypops is very light.

Symbolism

Passiflora was a name given to this showy flower when it was first described by missionaries in South America (Brazil, Paraguay). These missionaries believed that they saw various aspects of the passion of Christ immediately before and after his crucifixion. The coronal threads were seen as a symbol for the crown of thorns; the curling tendrils as the cords of the whip used to scourge Jesus. The five stamen were identified with the wounds that Christ received at his crucifixion. The three large stigmas for nails on the cross (one for each of his hands and one where Christ’s feet were placed one on top of the other and a single nail hammered into both of them. The five petals and five sepals of the flower refer to the 10 “true” apostles. Neither Peter who denied Christ and Judas who betrayed him were considered “true” apostles.

Reflection

Before I read about the symbolism of the passion flower, I thought it was beautiful to look at, both in its purple and white colors. Now, I look at the plant and see the passion of Christ. Possibly, I was happier when I could just enjoy the beauty of a flower without attempting to see the various allusions to Christ’s passion in the flower’s beauty. What about you? Do you sometimes just want to enjoy the beauty of a plant and omit the deep symbolism of it?

Copyright: October 29, 2017; Carolyn Adams Roth

Please visit my website: www. CarolynRothMinistry.com to see books which contain plants in the Bible.

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Dandelion in Last Supper

dandelion-flower2

Christ’s celebration of a last supper with his apostles was recorded in several gospels; read Luke 22:7-23.

For Christians, the Passover meal Christ celebrated with his apostles is called the Last Supper and the Guest Room known as the Upper Room. Area maps showed that the Upper Room was south of the Temple near the Gihon Spring. A path led from the Upper Room through the Kidron Valley to the Garden of Gethsemane. The date for the Passover meal in 33 A.D. was Thursday, April 22 (Wallace, 2012).

The central food in the Passover meal was a one-year-old unblemished male lamb. This lamb symbolized Christ, the unblemished lamb who was sacrificed for sins. Another food in the Passover Meal was bitter herbs which were associated with the bitterness of Israelite life in Egypt. The type of bitter herb used for the Passover meal was not specified in the Bible; it could have been endive, lettuce, dandelion, etc, or another herb that grew around Jerusalem.

When Christ offered the Passover bread and the third cup of Passover wine to his apostles at the Last Supper, he initiated a Christian ritual — Holy Eucharist. The bread and wine symbolized Christ’s body which would be broken and his blood which would be shed for mankind.  In many Christian churches, the Eucharist is offered every week to congregates as a memorial of Christ’s sacrifice and to give them strength in their Christian walk.

 Dandelion   Dandelion, JBG

Known since the time of Moses, the dandelion is used to illustrate bitter herbs in the Last Supper.  The species name of dandelion is Taraxacom officinale.  It has numerous common names to include puff ball, Irish daisy, and wine’s snout. In Israel, dandelions grow from the extreme north at Mount Hermon south to the Negev Dessert. Dandelion is a perennial herb. Leaves grow directly from the root in a rosette pattern; often leaves grow more horizontal than upright. Flower stems are erect, smooth, and hollow.  Normally flower stems grow about 6-8 inches in length; however, a dandelion plant left un-accosted in my flower bed had a 12-inch flower stem. The flower has a golden yellow head that is 1.5-2 inches in diameter. Did you know that dandelion flowers close at night and open at daylight?

Although dandelion leaves have a bitter flavor, the plant is cultivated as a salad crop. My mother served yard (not garden) dandelion greens with hard boiled eggs, bacon, and a tangy warm dressing.  A cousin used young dandelion flowers to make wine.

Symbolism: Lion’s tooth

The word dandelion comes from the French phrase “dent de lion” which means “lion’s tooth” because of the jagged shape of leaves. The dandelion, the bane of home-owners and farmers, hardly seems to warrant a French name as grand as lion’s tooth.  “Lion’s tooth” reminds us of Christ. When Christ came to earth two millennia ago, he came as a humble suffering servant.  When he returns to earth the second time, Christ will return as a lion. He will be a military leader who will rend and tear those individuals who set themselves against him.   

Reflection: Have you encountered Christ in his role of suffering servant or will you encounter him the first time as a military leader?

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright: Carolyn A. Roth, 4/11/16

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Aloe and Myrrh Wrapped Body

Today is the most solemn day in the Christian calendar.  By 9:00 a.m., Christ was crucified.

Jewish law and custom required immediate burial of Jesus’ dead body. Mosaic Law required that Jews bury the body of a man put to death by hanging on a tree the same day he died (Deuteronomy 21:22-23). The reason for this Mosaic requirement was so that the land not be desecrated by a dead body remaining un-buried. The book of Tobit (Apocrypha, 2009) described the value Jews placed on seeing that all slain Jews had a proper burial even when the Jews were in exile.

Jesus’ crucified body died about 3:00 p.m. on Friday. By Jewish custom, Friday was the Day of Preparation for the Saturday Sabbath. Preparation Day ended at about 6:00 p.m. on Friday when the Sabbath began. No work was allowed on the Sabbath to include burying a dead body. Jesus followers had about three hours between the time he died and the start of the Sabbath celebration.

Joseph of Arimathea was a prominent member of the Jewish council who believed that Jesus was the Messiah. Boldly, Joseph went to Pilate and asked for Jesus’ body. After confirming with the centurion that Jesus was dead, Pilate released Jesus’ body to Joseph.

Along with Nicodemus, Joseph took Jesus’ body from the cross. They wrapped the body in linen stripes and 75 pounds of mixed aloe and myrrh. The Jewish burial custom of using spices in burial linens was associated with covering the smell of the decaying body.  Because aloe had little odor, possibly the aloes were used to “fix” or hold the scent of the myrrh.

Aloe vera

Aloe

The aloe of the New Testament is the Aloe vera also known as the Aloe barbadensis, Aloe vulgaris (common aloe) and the medicinal aloe. Some sources identified the aloe as the oldest medicinal plant. The aloe is distributed in Mediterranean woodlands and shrub-lands in hard rock outcrops including maritime sands. When aloe is harvested for its medicinal gel, older leaves are harvested as they are larger and contain more gel.

Myrrh

The Israelite myrrh plant is the Commiphora abyssinic. The Hebrew word for myrrh is môr or môwr which means bitter, possibly because myrrh has a bitter taste (Strong, 2010). Around 1876-1880 B.C., Jacob described myrrh as one of the best products of Canaan and directed his sons to take myrrh to Egypt to trade for grain (Genesis 43:11-14). In present day Israel, the myrrh tree grows in the Biblical Landscape Reserve (Neot Kedumim). Although often referred to as a spice, myrrh is the dried resin from the myrrh tree. When the resin is harvested, lateral cuts are made on the trunk or branches. An aromatic gum resin exudes from the wounds. When the resin is exposed to the air, the gum hardens forming irregular shaped yellow or brown globules. The globules smell pleasant but have a bitter taste. We saw myrrh in the bazaar in the old city of Jerusalem. The myrrh was in sharp-edged, marble-size pieces. Myrrh continues to be used today as sweet smelling incense for religious celebrations.

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Symbolism: Healing

Traditionally, aloe has been associated with healing.  In the book of Isaiah (Isaiah 53:5, NIV, 2002) we read these prophetic words about Christ, “But he was pierced for our transgressions, he was crushed for our iniquities; the punishment that brought us peace was upon him, and by his wounds we are healed.” Jesus body was dead; therefore, aloes weren’t used to heal him. The healing aloes in Jesus’ burial cloth exemplified Jesus’ continued healing of us even after his physical death.

After Jesus’ resurrection some individuals in Judea and the Roman Empire accepted healing from Jesus. Other individuals weren’t willing to be healed. Some couldn’t comprehend that a man would die for their sins. Others simply didn’t believe that they were all that bad; why would someone need to die for their few sins? For still others it was easier to continue their same religious observances, e.g., make an animal sacrifice or give a little money into a treasury, than to accept a new way of thinking.

The rationale and rationalizations that individuals used 2,000 years ago for not accepting healing from Jesus are the same ones that individuals use today. On Sunday morning in church, we pray the “Prayers of the People.” Frequently, there are prayer requests for healing – surgery, diagnostic tests, cancer – from members of the congregation. I’m always surprised that congregates don’t offer more prayers for loved ones’ spiritual healing. My dear friend isn’t a Christian; I love him so much. From time to time, I ask congregates to pray that he comes to a saving knowledge of Christ. I really should ask them to pray for him every Sunday.

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright March 25, 2016; Carolyn A. Roth

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Palms in Triumphal Entry

Triumphal entry

Jesus’s triumphal entry into Jerusalem took place on the first day of the week by the Jewish week. Christian’s call this day “Palm Sunday” or “Passion Sunday.” Jesus went from Bethany, through the Mount of Olives, to Jerusalem. At Bethphage disciples brought to him a colt to ride on. Crowds along the way, placed their cloaks on the road for his colt to step on, people waved palm leaves, and shouted, “Hosanna to the Son of David, blessed is he that comes in the name of the Lord, hosanna in the highest.”

The crowds expect Jesus to throw off the oppression of the Roman, to implement fair and equitable taxation, to initiate fair wages, provide food for them in abundance, heal their bodies and relationships, and repudiate the oppressive requirements of the Pharisees.

Most of the people in the crowd were rustic, many had followed Jesus from Galilee. They remembered that 200 years previously, Jerusalemites welcomed Judas Maccabaeus when he entered Jerusalem after he defeated the pagan Syrian king and freed the Jews. At that time, the people met Judas Maccabaeus with waving palm branches. They really wanted Jesus to do what Judas Maccabaeus did.

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Palm Leaves

Palm trees often grow 100 feet tall.  Palm trees grow only at the top of the tree and are 6-8 feet long. Flowers bloom in April – May. The fruit of Israeli palm tree is a date which typically ripens August-December. Before the Israelites entered the Promised Land, Moses told them it would be a  land of milk and honey. He was not referring to honey made by bees but honey from the date palm tree.

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Jesus’s Action

When Jesus entered Jerusalem, people were expecting a king. Instead Jesus entered Jerusalem and went into the Temple courts (Mark 11:11). He looked around at everything in the Temple; but since it was already late, we went back to Bethany with the 12 disciples. When Jesus looked around, he was not being casual; he looked to see if the Temple was a place to worship God where all were welcome. Was the Temple functioning in the way God planned for it to function?

Clearly, it was not because at another time, he chided the Temple leaders by saying that they made the Temple a den of thieves and robbers. Jesus was unhappy about what he saw and the people were unhappy at what he did. They wanted a war lord and got a suffering servant. Probably, some of the crowd that greeted Jesus with palm leaves and hosannas, were the same people that called for his crucifixion.

The two photos above are palm leaves that we received in church this morning, Palm Sunday. Notice the dried cross. We save crosses made from palm leaves an entire year. They are burned to create ashes for Ash Wednesday which starts Lent in orthodox churches.

Reflection: What do you think people want from Jesus today? Are you a suffering servant for God?

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright: March 20, 2016; Carolyn A. Roth

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Beautiful Crown of Thorns

Jerusalem thorn bush (2)This beautiful flowered plant is name the Jerusalem thorn (Paliurus spina-christi).  Before the Roman soldiers led Christ away to be crucified at Golgotha, they took him into the Roman Praetorium (the soldier’s section of the governor’s palace). There, they stripped Jesus, whipped him, and placed a crown of thorns on his head. Most Israeli botanists believe the thorn crown was made from the Jerusalem thorn.

Jerusalem Thorn Jerusalem thorn flowers

The plant is native to Europe and western Asia. It grows at a slow to moderate rate and even appears to stop growing for a time. In Israel, Jerusalem thorns grow in the north around Mount Heron and in the Mediterranean wood and shrub lands in central Israel.

Jerusalem thorn plant stems and twigs are flexible and hairless.The flexibility made the Jerusalem thorn ideal to interlace into a crown of thorns. Thorns occur in pairs of unequal length thorns. The longest is about an inch long.

1-DSC07004Symbolism:

Suggested symbolism of the Jerusalem thorn is sin and grief. Perhaps a better symbol is cruelty. A cruel act is one devoid of human feelings when grief, plain, and injury are inflicted. When the Roman soldiers put the crown of thorns on Christ’s head, they were being deliberately cruel. Making him wear the crown of thorns as he attempted to carry the cross through Jerusalem streets and when he was crucified had no purpose. The act was deliberate cruelty.

Reflection: Think about the times when your behavior was cruel, deliberately or by simple neglect of something you could have done. How can you be less cruel?

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright: April 1, 2015: Carolyn Adams Roth

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Easter Dogwood

Dogwood tree Many individuals believe that the cross on which Christ was crucified was from a dogwood tree. They associate the dark spot on each petal of the dogwood flower with the wounds on his hands and feet.

In reality, the dogwood tree did not grow in   Judea in Christ’s time. Historians don’t know the species of tree used for the cross. Remember the song – The Old Rugged Cross by George Bennard (1873-1958). Thoughtfully, read (or even sing) the words.

On a hill far away stood an old rugged cross,
	the emblem of suffering and shame;
	and I love that old cross where the dearest and best
	for a world of lost sinners was slain.
Refrain:
	So I'll cherish the old rugged cross,
	till my trophies at last I lay down;
	I will cling to the old rugged cross,
	and exchange it some day for a crown.

2.	O that old rugged cross, so despised by the world,
	has a wondrous attraction for me;
	for the dear Lamb of God left his glory above
	to bear it to dark Calvary.
	(Refrain)

3.	In that old rugged cross, stained with blood so divine,
	a wondrous beauty I see,
	for 'twas on that old cross Jesus suffered and died,
	to pardon and sanctify me.
	(Refrain)

4.	To that old rugged cross I will ever be true,
	its shame and reproach gladly bear;
	then he'll call me some day to my home far away,
	where his glory forever I'll share.
dogwood-flowers-11	(Refrain)

Christ’s Body Wrapped in Aloes

Reference: Mark 15:42-46 and John 19:38-42.

Jewish law and custom required immediate burial of Jesus’ dead body. Mosaic Law required that Jews bury the body of a man put to death by hanging on a tree the same day he died (Deuteronomy 21:22-23). The reason for this Mosaic requirement was so that the land not be desecrated by a dead body remaining unburied. The book of Tobit (Apocrypha, 2009) described the value Jews placed on seeing that all slain Jews had a proper burial even when the Jews were in exile.

Jesus’ crucified body died about 3:00 p.m. on Friday. By Jewish custom, Friday was the Day of Preparation for the Saturday Sabbath. Preparation Day ended at about 6:00 p.m. on Friday when the Sabbath began. No work was allowed on the Sabbath to include burying a dead body. Jesus followers had about three hours between the time he died and the start of the Sabbath celebration.

Joseph of Arimathea was a prominent member of the Jewish council who believed that Jesus was the Messiah. Boldly, Joseph went to Pilate and asked for Jesus’ body. After confirming with the centurion that Jesus was dead, Pilate released Jesus’ body to Joseph. Along with Nicodemus, Joseph took Jesus’ body from the cross. They wrapped the body in linen stripes and 75 pounds of mixed aloe and myrrh. The Jewish burial custom of using spices in burial linens was associated with covering the smell of the decaying body.  Because aloe had little odor, possibly the aloes were used to “fix” or hold the scent of the myrrh.

Near the place where Jesus was crucified, Joseph had a tomb cut out of the rock (Matthew 27:59-60). The new tomb was to be Joseph’s burial site; however, it was to this tomb that Joseph and Nicodemus took Jesus’ body for burial. After laying Jesus in the tomb, they rolled a large stone against the entrance to secure it. Mary, the Mother of Jesus, and Mary Magdalene were present and saw where Jesus was buried.

Aloes

The aloe of the New Testament is the Aloe vera also known as the Aloe barbadensis, Aloe vulgaris (common aloe) and the medicinal aloe. Some sources identified the aloe as the oldest medicinal plant. The aloe is distributed in Mediterranean woodlands and shrub-lands in hard rock outcrops including maritime sands. We saw aloe plants growing in the southern Negev Desert area in Kibbutzim Lotan and Ketura. The aloe requires full sun and can’t grow in the shade. It can grow in nutritionally poor soils and prefers sand and loam. Adult plants are drought tolerant. Aloe vera is an evergreen, perennial succulent with a strong fibrous root. When aloe is harvested for its medicinal gel, older leaves are harvested as they are larger and contain more gel.

A.vera flowerSymbolism: Healing
Traditionally, aloe has been associated with healing.  In the book of Isaiah (Isaiah 53:5, NIV, 2002) we read these prophetic words about Christ, “But he was pierced for our transgressions, he was crushed for our iniquities; the punishment that brought us peace was upon him, and by his wounds we are healed.” Jesus body was dead; therefore, aloes weren’t used to heal him. The healing aloes in Jesus’ burial cloth exemplified Jesus’ continued healing of us even after his physical death.

After Jesus’ resurrection some individuals in Judea and the Roman Empire accepted healing from Jesus. Other individuals weren’t willing to be healed. Some couldn’t comprehend that a man would die for their sins. Others simply didn’t believe that they were all that bad; why would someone need to die for their few sins? For still others it was easier to continue their same religious observances, e.g., make an animal sacrifice or give a little money into a treasury, than to accept a new way of thinking.

The rationale and rationalizations that individuals used 2,000 years ago for not accepting healing from Jesus are the same ones that individuals use today. On Sunday morning in church, we pray the “Prayers of the People.” Frequently, there are prayer requests for healing – surgery, diagnostic tests, cancer – from members of the congregation. I’m always surprised that congregates don’t offer more prayers for loved ones’ spiritual healing. My dear friend isn’t a Christian; I love him so much. From time to time, I ask congregates to pray that he comes to a saving knowledge of Christ. I really should ask them to pray for him every Sunday.

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright (narrative and photographs): Carolyn Roth 4/14/2014

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Crucifixion Thirst

Sorgham from Kibbutz LotanBible References: Mark 15:33-37 and John 19:28-30.

Jesus was crucified at about 9:00 a.m. on Friday morning. At 12 noon, darkness came over the land and remained until about 3:00 p.m. By 3:00 p.m. Jesus was in extreme agony, both physically and mentally. His physical agony was from the effects of the Roman soldiers’ torture, the crown of thorns, and the nails that pierced his hands and feet so that he would hang on the cross. Christ’s mental anguish came from two sources. First, Jesus, who never sinned, had the weight of the world’s sin on his mind; he felt all of mankind’s perversions and violence. Second, the perfect, righteous God could not look at Jesus while Jesus was saturated with the sins of mankind. During the 6 hours Jesus was on the cross, God turned his face away from Jesus.  Jesus was horribly alone for the first time in his life in heaven and in his 33 years on earth.  It is no wonder Jesus cried out, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”(Mark 15:33).

Hearing Jesus’ words, some individuals standing near the cross concluded that Jesus called for Elijah. One man ran and filled a sponge with wine vinegar, put the sponge on the stalk of a hyssop plant, and lifted it to Jesus’ lips.  Jesus drank the wine vinegar.  Because the man had the authority to give Jesus wine, he was a Roman soldier or official.  Not uncommonly, Roman soldiers gave water or wine to men being crucified in order to revive them and to prolong the dying process. Attempting to revive Jesus was the man’s motivation for giving Jesus wine vinegar, because he said, “Now, leave him alone. Let’s see if Elijah comes to take him down” (Mark 15:36). Neither God nor Elijah came to rescue Jesus.  Instead, soon thereafter Jesus gave his last breath and died.

The Hyssop Reed

Controversy surrounds the type of the hyssop stalk, or reed, used to offer Jesus wine vinegar while he was on the cross. Very likely this hyssop reed, wasn’t the hyssop of the Old Testament (see the story of David killing Uriah in Chapter 6). This hyssop doesn’t have a long (perhaps up to 6 feet) sturdy stalk that could have reached Jesus’ lips when he was on the cross.  Several writers proposed that the hyssop reed was from the genus Sorghum. The primary sorghum in Israel is Sorghum halepense. In Israel, another name for S. halepense is Aleppo Millet Grass while in the United States it is called Johnson grass. 

Sorghum is suited to the climate and agricultural conditions of Israel. It can thrive in the lowlands and mountains as a non-irrigated summer crop. We saw healthy sorghum growing in the southern Negev Desert in Kibbutz Lotan; however, crops were irrigated on the kibbutz with non-potable water. Often sorghum grows wild in disturbed areas such as ditch banks, and along roadsides. It is partial to heavy soils. 

Symbolism: End or Finish

In this passage, the hyssop reed symbolized the end point or finish. After Jesus received the wine vinegar on the hyssop reed, his final words were, “It is finished” (John 19:30). He finished all the tasks set before him to include enduring the cross. Genesis records another example of finished work; by the 7th day, God finished the work of creating the earth so he rested (Genesis 2:2). For mankind Christ’s finished work on the cross, symbolized by a final sip of water from a reed, was as important an ending as creation of the world.

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright: Carolyn A. Roth 3/14

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Jesus Refused Gall

Bible Reference: TPapaver somniferum,he episode of Christ refusing gall, a sedative-painkiller is recorded in Matthew 27:32-40.

When the Roman soldiers left the Praetorium with Jesus, they required him to carry the cross on which he would be crucified; however, Jesus was so weak from flogging and torture that he couldn’t carry it through the streets. The soldiers forced Simon of Cyrene to carry Jesus’s cross to Golgotha where the crucifixion occurred. At Golgotha, the soldiers offered Jesus wine mixed with gall. After tasting the drink, Jesus refused it. Then, the soldiers used nails to pound Jesus’ hands and feet into the cross. Jesus continued to wear the crown of thorns. 

By Roman law, the soldiers were required to write the charges against the accused at the top of the cross so that all who passed by would know the reason for the crucifixion. The inscription on Jesus’ cross was, “The King of the Jews.” The Roman soldiers positioned the cross up-right into a hole in the ground so that Jesus hung from the cross. Two thieves were being crucified at the same time as Jesus, one on each side of Jesus. Jesus was crucified at the third hour of the day, or about 9:00 a.m.

When Roman soldiers felt pity for a prisoner before crucifixion, they added gall, or poppy juice, to the vinegar drink offered to prisoners. The opium poppy is a narcotic that induces a high level of deep sleep and pain relief. The common Western drugs morphine and codeine are distilled from the opium poppy.  

Gall

The gall in the wine offered to Jesus was most likely distilled from the Papaver somniferum plant, commonly called the opium poppy. Most books identify the opium poppy as a Far East plant; however, it was native to the Mediterranean region and eastward to Iran. In Israel, the opium poppy produces its beautiful flower in March and April. The opium poppy petal is a soft purple that looks rumpled, like an un-ironed cotton shirt. 

When the poppy capsule is harvested for its juice, a knife is used to cut transverse or vertical incisions in the unripe capsule. So valuable poppy juice is not lost or seeds damaged, harvesters take special care not to cut through the capsule wall. The white juice seeps through the cuts and hardens into brown masses on the outside capsule wall. These brown masses are scraped off the outer capsule wall, then combined in a clay pots or large trays and kneaded to a uniform consistency. This crude poppy is shaped into balls, cakes, or sticks for marketing. In the United States, it is illegal for home gardeners to grow opium poppies. 

Symbolism: Sedation

This poppy produces opium, the ingredient in the gall offered to Jesus before his crucifixion. The drug would have sedated Jesus making him sleepy and reducing his pain.  If a high concentration of opium was included in the gall, Jesus would have experienced hallucinations, further reducing his contact with reality. Jesus’ refused the sedative. He was determined to experience both the physical and mental pain associated with redeeming mankind. 

Reflection: Would it have made a difference to our redemption, if Christ drank the gall and was sedated on the cross?

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright: Carolyn A. Roth, 2/14

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Crown of Thorns

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The episode of the Roman soldiers putting a crown of thorns on Christ head is told in 5 short verses in Mark 15:15-20.

After Jesus was betrayed by Judas and arrested by the Jewish leaders, he was taken to Pilate, the Roman ruler of Palestine. The Jewish leaders demanded that Pilate crucify Jesus.  Pilate was reluctant to order Jesus’ death because he could find no crime committed by Jesus.  To placate the Jews, Pilate had Christ flogged.  Pilate thought that flogging Jesus would be sufficient punishment to satisfy the Jews; however, it made no difference to the Jewish leaders.  They continued to incite the crowds to call loudly for Christ’s crucifixion.  Finally, Pilate ordered Jesus’ death by crucifixion.

Jesus was turned over to the Roman soldiers who took him to the quarters for the Roman soldiers called the Praetorium.  To mock Jesus’ claim that he was a king, the soldiers put a purple robe on him. The robe was probably a cloak; purple was the symbol of royalty.  Instead of a jewel-encrusted gold crown or the traditional Roman crown of flowers, the soldiers put a crown of thorns on Jesus’ head. The thorns would have dug into Jesus scalp adding addition pain to his already whipped and tortured body. The soldiers called out to Jesus mockingly, “Hail, king of the Jews.” Again and again the soldiers struck Jesus on the head and face with a staff.  They spit on Jesus in a parody of the traditional kiss given to Roman rulers.

After the soldiers had sufficient “fun” torturing Jesus, they removed the robe, put Jesus’ own clothes on him, and led him away to be crucified. The soldiers did not remove the crown of thorns from Jesus’ head.  The thorn crown went to the cross on Christ’s head.

Crown of Thorns

Although there is some controversy surrounding the plant used as the crown of thorns, credible sourced identified it as the Paliurus spina-christi, commonly called Christ’s thorn and the Jerusalem thorn.  In Israel, it grows near Mount Hermon in the north and in the Mediterranean woodlands and shrub-lands in central Israel. Plants have slow to moderate growth and at times seem to stop growing altogether. Stems and twigs are flexible and hairless. They have a pair of unequal length, hard, sharp thorns. The longer of the two spines is up to 1 inch long. The flexibility of stems and twigs in the Jerusalem thorn made it  ideal to plait into a thorn crown. 

Symbolism:  Cruelty

Suggested symbols of the Jerusalem thorn include grief, tribulation, and sin .  Although these are valid symbols, the situation described in Matthew’s (27:26-31) and Mark’s (15:15-20) is about “cruelty.”  A cruel act is one devoid of human feelings as grief, pain, and injury are inflicted.  Jesus had been flogged and condemned to death.  It was deliberately cruel for the Roman soldiers to take Jesus to the Praetorium and there ridicule and torture him to include placing a braided crown of thorns on his head.

Reflection. Cruelty is often on purpose; but sometimes it is merely neglect of something we know we should be doing. Are your cruel to your spouse, children, friends, co-workers in God’s vineyard? Are you cruel to your enemies? Is that cruelty more permissible than other cruelty?

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright: Carolyn A. Roth, 1/14

 

 

 

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