Category Archives: Plants in Christ’s Birth & Galilee

Weeds in a Wheat Field

Lolium temulentum var. arvenseChrist’s Parable of  Weeds in a Wheat Field is in Matthew 13:24-30.

Christ was seated by the Lake of Galilee when he told The Parable of the Weeds (Matthew 13:1).  The parable is one of six parables that Christ used to demonstrate the nature of the kingdom of heaven. Here is the parable: A farmer planted good wheat seeds in his field. “Good” wheat seeds meant that contaminants, e.g. weeds, wild oats, and chaff, are absent from the wheat seeds. At night the farmer’s enemy sowed weeds or tares among the wheat. When the wheat sprouted and formed heads, so did the weeds. The weeds were intermingled with the wheat.

A servant told the owner about the weeds. He asked the owner if he and the other servants should pull out the weeds. The owner said “No” and explained that when the servants pull out the weeds, they could inadvertently pull up the wheat. The farmer understood that weed and wheat roots planted near each other intertwined. If weeds are removed, wheat roots and stems would be pulled up or damaged. The farmer directed the servant to let both wheat and weeds grow together until the harvest. Then, the servants could go through the fields, pull and bundle the weeds, and burn them. Wheat would be harvested and taken into the owner’s barn.

The parable demonstrated the growth of the kingdom of heaven from its original planting, through growth, to harvest. The field is the world. God, the owner, sowed good seed; individuals who were destined to followed him. The devil, the enemy, sowed weeds into the field; individuals who were against or indifferent to God’s teachings. The servants are God’s angels.  God refused to allow the angels to remove the weeds from the world because the lives (roots) of rejecters and followers are intertwined, just like the roots of weeds and wheat. 

Harvest represented the second coming of Christ. At that time, the angels are free to remove the weeds.  God rejecters will be collected like the weeds they are. They will be bundled and burned.  Then, the angels will gather God’s followers. These good plants will be brought into the storehouse of God.

Weeds, Darnel

The weed referred to in the Parable of the Weed was most likely the Lolium temulentum. This weed is also known as darnel and poison ryegrass. The darnel is indigenous to the Mediterranean region including the Middle East. Darnel infests wheat fields and other cultivated land and spreads as a contaminant of wheat. It is widely distributed in Israel to include Mediterranean woodlands and shrub lands, shrub-steppes and deserts to include extreme deserts. Even a few darnel grains can adversely affect crop quality. Darnel seeds are poisonous to people and livestock.

Symbolism: Malice, Malicious

The enemy who sowed the weeds among the good wheat was malicious. His behavior was spiteful, mean, and malevolent.  He wanted to destroy the good wheat that the farmer was growing. An Old Testament proverb focused on maliciousness:  “A malicious man disguised himself with his lips, but in his heart he harbors deceit. Though his speech is charming do not believe him ….. His malice may be concealed by deception, but his wickedness will be exposed in the assembly” (Proverbs 26:24-27). The proverb also teaches us how to respond to a malicious man and his ultimate outcome.   

The New Testament is contains instruction to avoid malicious behavior (Table 12.1). Christ told his disciples that what goes into a man does not make him unclean (Mark 7:17-23). Rather, what is inside and comes out determines whether a man is clean or unclean. If a person’s heart is clean, good things will come out of them. Unfortunately, if a person’s heart is unclean, he will think and spew forth all kinds of unclean words, such as evil thoughts, malice, and deceit.  Similarly, an unclean heart produces unclean living, e.g., sexual immorality, adultery, theft, murder.   

St. Paul addressed malice and malicious talk repeatedly in letters to early churches and in letters to his young protégé Timothy. Notably, Paul and Peter were both writing to believers. These two saints were exhorting believers to set aside spiteful, mean, and malevolent words. Malice can be harmful to a church; e.g., Paul wrote that a potential deacon’s wife must “not be a malicious talker” (I Timothy 3:11). Despite man’s excellent traits, e.g., sincere, temperate, honest, if his wife is a malicious talker, then the man is disqualified to be a deacon. Believers – men, women, and children – must all be attuned to what comes out of their mouths.

Table 12.1, Directions to refute maliciousness

Speaker

Direction

Scripture

Christ to his disciples

These thoughts/behaviors make a person unclean: evil thoughts, sexual immorality, theft, murder, adultery, greed, malice, deceit, lewdness, envy, slander, arrogance, and folly

Mark 7:20-23

Paul to the Ephesus church

Get rid of all bitterness, rage and anger, brawling and slander, along with every form of malice.

Ephesians 4:31

Paul to the Colosse church

Rid yourself of these things: anger, rage, malice, slander, and filthy language from your lips.

Colosians 3: 8

Paul to Timothy about deacon’s wives

Wives of church deacons should be women worthy of respect, not malicious talkers, but temperate and trustworthy in everything.

I Timothy 3:11

Paul to Timothy

Paul warns that a man who teaches false doctrines and does not accept sound instruction is conceited and understands nothing.  He has an unhealthy interest in controversies, quarrels about words that end in envy, strife, malicious talk, evil suspicions, and constant friction between men of corrupt minds.

I Timothy 6:3-5

Peter to Christians in Asia Minor

Rid yourselves of all malice and all deceit, hypocrisy, envy, and slander of any kind.

I Peter 2:1

Reflection. In a way it is good that the heart and our words are so closely aligned. Hearing our own malicious words can be a clue that there is something wrong with our hearts. Do you take the time to reflect on what you say?

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

copyright June 6, 2013; Carolyn A. Roth

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Identifying False Prophets

Centaurea iberica, butterflyJesus’ identified that we can recognize good and bad prophets by their fruits; see Matthew 7:15-20.

This teaching is labeled “A Tree and Its Fruit” (NIV-SB). Jesus began with “watch out for false prophets” (Matthew 7:15). Then, he told the crowds the reason for his warning: false prophets were ferocious wolfs that acted like gentle sheep. The good news was that people could recognize false prophets by their fruit – by looking at both their words and their actions. Just as a woman cannot pick grapes from thorn bushes or a man pick figs from a thistle, neither can a false prophet produce good fruit. A good tree cannot bear bad fruit and a bad tree cannot bear good fruit. Although false prophets could appear humble and mild like Christ or even blunt and rough like John the Baptist, their words are full of lies.

When Christ compared the words of false prophets to thorn bushes and thistles he was still teaching in Galilee. Primarily his listeners were from rural areas and small towns who had experience growing and picking grapes and figs. They knew about good and bad vines and productive and non-productive trees. These listeners weren’t surprised when Jesus said that trees that do not bear good fruit are cut down and thrown into the fire. The sooner bad trees were uprooted and destroyed the better. Although newly planted trees take 3-4 years to grow, they have the potential to produce good fruit; with bad trees there was no hope for a good crop. When Christ noted that bad trees were cut down, he was not implying that the people should kill false prophets. Rather, he was saying that the correct response to a false prophet is to stop listening to them.

Spanish Thistle

The plant associated with the thistle in Matthew 7:15-20 is the Centaurea iberica, known as the Spanish thistle or Iberian star thistle. The Spanish thistle is native to India, the Middle East, and southeastern Europe. Often the thistle is found in disturbed areas including over-grazed lands and construction sites. Seeds are spread by livestock, vehicles, equipment, and contaminated hay and seed crop. Seeds can be transported on clothing. The Spanish thistle grows throughout Israel from the northern Golan and Hermon areas, through the central mountains and plains including the Mediterranean coast to the Northern Negev Desert area. Spanish star thistle is an invasive plant that displaces valuable forage species and space in pasture lands. The plants sharp spines deter grazing animals, impede recreational use, and restrict access for wildlife.

Symbolism: Recognize, Recognition           

Christ told his disciple that plants and prophets could be recognized by what they produce. When we recognize someone, we are familiar with them, distinguish them from others, and comprehend what they do and say. God gave some guiding principles to differentiate between a true versus a false prophet.

First, a true prophet acknowledges that Jesus Christ is the son of God in the flesh (1 John 4:3).  In contrast, a false prophet does not acknowledge Jesus as God. When prophets, pastors, or theologians say that it is not important whether Christ was truly God or in some way deny the deity of Christ, they are false prophets.  

Second, false prophets can be recognized by how they respond to and preach the word of God.  True prophets read and obey God’s word (1 John 4:6). They preach the Bible, because it contains God’s truths for personal salvation and for successful everyday life.  In today’s society, the norm is to “spin” information. “Spin” is a form of propaganda that provides an interpretation of an event in order to persuade opinion for or against it. Often spin is disingenuous, deceptive, or manipulative. False prophets spin God’s truths. Believers need to discerningly read the scriptures so they do not get taken in by the words of false prophets.

Third, false prophets can be recognized by sin in their lives. One way to recognize sin is to compare a prophet’s life with The Ten Commandments. The Ten Commandments identify sins, e.g., coveting, lying, and putting career achievement before God. A prophet who breaks God’s Commandments consistently and without repentance is a false prophet.  

Finally, in the Sermon on the Mountain, Jesus outlined expectations for followers. False prophets have said that these standards are unrealistic, e.g., so high that people cannot meet them. False prophets argued that the moral-ethical standards that Christ described in the Sermon on the Mount will only be achieved when Christ returns to earth the second time. Prophets or pastors who advocate this view are denying Christ’s words. In the Sermon on the Mountain, Christ outlined how individuals should live now, not in the new heaven and the new earth. False prophets sin when they distort God’s word and they provide an instantaneous way for Christians to recognize them.

Reflection. Do you know the Bible well enough to recognize when it is being preached truthfully? If you answered “No,” what are some options?

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright May 27, 2013; Carolyn A. Roth

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John the Baptist: No Weak Reed

????????????Christ description of John the Baptist as no feeble reed is in Luke 7:18-35.

About to begin his public ministry, Jesus went John to be baptized.  John preached a baptism for the repentance of sin. At first John declined to baptize Jesus recognizing that Christ was the sinless son of God. John persuaded John to baptize him by saying that the baptism was necessary to fulfill all righteousness (Matthew 3:13). To fulfill all righteousness indicated that Jesus was consecrated to God and officially approved by him. 

Soon after the baptism of Christ, King Herod Antipas imprisoned John. John openly disapproved of Herod’s marriage to Herodias, Herod’s brother’s wife (Matthew 14:3-5).  Herod divorced his first wife to marry Herodias. John’s prison was Machaerus, Herod’s fortress-palace on the east side of the Dead Sea. 

While imprisoned, John sent two of his disciples to Galilee to ask Christ, “are you the one who was to come, or should we expect someone else” (Luke 7:19). Christ did not give John’s disciples a direct “Yes” or “No” answer. Instead he told them to go back to John and report what they saw and heard, e.g., the blind received their sight, the lame walked, and lepers were cured.

After John’s messenger left, Christ asked the crowd what they expected when they went to the desert to see John: a reed swaying in the wind, a man dressed in fine clothes, or a prophet?  When Christ asked the crowd if they expected to see a swaying reed, he was referring to the firmness of John’s conviction and message. John’s message did not depend on his audience. He had the same message for tax collectors, religious leaders, and rulers:  repent, for the kingdom of heaven is a hand. John was not politically correct.  He never altered his message to accommodate an audience. He was a straight reed that did not sway from of his convictions; thus, his imprisonment and death.

The Reed

The reed that Christ alluded to was the Arundo donax, known as the giant reed or the Cypress cane. The giant reed was introduced into the Middle East and Europe from the sub-continent of Asia. The largest colonies are located on the banks of natural water courses, in floodplains of medium or large sized streams, and in dry river banks far from permanent water sources. Often the reed is found where water sources have been physically disturbed or dammed.  In Israel A. donax grows throughout the country from Mount Hermon to the Negev Desert. At one time, botanist thought the giant reed could not tolerate salt and maritime exposure; however, giant reeds have grown on sand dunes near seashores, e.g. the Sharon Plain. It tolerates strong winds and just about any type of soil. The giant reed will not grow in the shade.

Symbolism: Conviction, Convict

In the vignette of John the Baptist and the swaying reed, the symbolism is conviction. A conviction is a firmly held belief that something is true, real, and certain. John lived his convictions; he stayed on message (repentance) and on task (baptizing). My husband calls John “a straight arrow” because John did not deviate from his convictions. John was like the long straight culms of the giant reed which grew along the Jordan River where John baptized repentant sinners. 

Today the world has an even stronger voice than that of John to convict us of sin. The Holy Spirit is in the world to convict individuals of sin, righteousness, and judgment (John 16:8). The Holy Spirits convicts individuals of original sin and their need to repent, accept Christ as Savior, and be baptized. At the same time Holy Spirit has a convicting role in the lives of Christians as well. If we listen, the Holy Spirit tells us which parts of their lives are righteous and which are sinful. Then we can make sound judgments about aspects of our lives to change.   

Jude wrote that God and his holy ones will convict sinners about the harsh words that they have spoken against him (Jude 1:15). Sometimes Christians speak harshly about God when they do not get their own way, or do not understand reasons for circumstances in their lives.  At times, we laugh at jokes about God. Years ago I heard a joke about the Holy Spirit. I am still stunned that anyone had the temerity to joke about God’s spirit (Mark 3:29). Rarely do we speak up when an individual disrespects God by cursing or discounts the Holy Scriptures. Both laughter and silence imply agreement and can be as harsh as outspoken words against God.      

John could have been silent when Herod divorced his first wife so he could marry his brother’s wife. He wasn’t silent and he paid for his out-spoken convictions with his life. I wonder if we as Christians should speak out more often on the rampant immorality in our world. Yes, we will get push-back and that push-back may label us as intolerant, bigots, etc. Our reputations may be shredded as a result of speaking our convictions. John the Baptist cared more about his convictions than his reputation in the world.

Prayer: God, please give us men and women today who have convictions and beliefs and are not buffeted by winds of change and political correctness. Lord, give our churches and society men and women who will speak up for you.

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright May 13, 2013; Carolyn A. Roht

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Grass of the Field

Dactylis glomerata, RignaneseJesus teaching on the grass of the field is in Matthew 6:28-30.

In the “Do Not Worry” portion of the Sermon on the Mount, Christ spoke about grass of the field as well as the lilies considered in the last section. Although scholars do not sure where Christ preached the Sermon, on the    northwestern corner of the Sea of Galilee near Capernaum is a gently sloping hillside that is often considered the Sermon site. Possible Christ stood at the bottom of the hillside while his listeners sat in the grass at higher elevations similar to an amphitheater.

In this story Christ told his hearers to consider the lilies and the field grass. The lilies adorned the simple grass in much the same way that colorful robes adorned King Solomon. Solomon’s robes were not as beautiful as the lilies that grew among the grass; the same grass that was here today and tomorrow thrown into the fire. Then, Christ asked his listeners, if God cared enough about field grass to clothe it with beautiful lilies, would not God much more clothe his people? 

Orchard Grass

In Israel there are hundreds of grasses in the local flora. One of the most valuable native grass species is the Dactylis glomerata, also known as orchard grass and cocksfoot. In ancient Israel, this grass grew wild and was used for grazing animals and at times cut for fodder. D. glomerata is native to North Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. It can grow on slopes, in shallow areas, and in very dry soils.  Orchard grass is frost and heat resistant and tolerates shade. The plant is found throughout Israel to include the Mediterranean coastline and extreme deserts. In the Mediterranean Basin, orchard grass has adapted to long, hot, dry summers.Seeds often germinate in three weeks.   

Symbolism: Pasture, Meadow

In the New Testament, the Greek word for grass is chŏrtŏs which comes from a primary word meaning a court, garden, or pasture. In the context of field grass, chŏrtŏs best symbolizes pasture land. Often pastures are called meadows. A meadow is land that is in grass or predominantly in grass. Pastures have important meaning to the ancient Israelites and by extension to Christians today. Jeremiah (50:7) wrote that the Lord was the true pasture of the Israelites; while psalmists sang that the Israelites were the sheep of God’s pasture (Psalm 100:3).  

King David declared that the Lord is our shepherd and makes us lie down in green pastures (Psalm 23:2). Interestingly, sheep only lie down when they feel contented and secure. When sheep feel threatened, they stand up and look around seeking the source of peril. David’s metaphor was that with the Lord as our shepherd, we, his flock, can rest contentedly in verdant meadows. Christ named himself the Good Shepherd and the gate for the sheep (John 10:9-14).  Whoever enters through him will be saved and find pastures. In these pastures, Christians will be safe and they will have a full life.

In the Roanoke Valley of Virginia, spring is here. Grasses have turned green, dogwood trees are blooming, and azalea bushes are laden with pink and white flowers. Looking at them calms my mind. I spend hours looking out my window at the beauty of the spring season. Often, my husband walks into the room, catches me standing in front of the window, and asks what I’m looking at. My answer is always the same – grasses, trees, and flowers. God made this beautiful section of creation just for me and just for anyone else who values it. God clothed these meadows with trees and flowers. 

In  2-3 weeks the dogwood trees will no longer bloom and azalea flowers will die. In several months, meadow grass will turn brown from the effects of reduced moisture and unrelenting sun.  If God is gracious, I will still look out my window; but the beauty of spring will be gone. When I consider spring’s beauty, it is hard to fathom that I am more important to God than spring grasses, blooming trees, and budding flowers. 

Reflection.  David wrote that we will enjoy safe pasture if we trust in the Lord and do good (Psalm 37:3). Do you want safe pastures enough to trust God and do good? Or, are safe pastures not a high priority for you right now?

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright April 30, 2013; carolyn a. roth

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Worry and the Lily of the Fields

?????????????????Jesus talked about lilies as part of the Sermon on the Mountain; see Matthew 6:25-34.

This excerpt is part of Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount.  Jesus was teaching in the synagogues in Galilee, healing disease and sickness in people. News of his teaching spread throughout Syria and large crowds from Galilee, Decapolis, Jerusalem, Judea and the trans-Jordan followed him.   When Jesus saw the large crowds, he went to the mountain side and sat down. Matthew wrote that Jesus’ disciples came to him and he began to teach them (Matthew 5:1-2). Most likely the “them” that Matthew identified in this passage referred to both Jesus’ disciples and the crowds present at that time (Matthew 7:28).

The Sermon on the Mount was Christ’s inaugural address. Christ explained what he expected of members of his kingdom. This address is the standard for Christian life. At the same time, Christians cannot expect to meet these standards in their own power. Christians need a regenerated heart and the Holy Spirit inside them in order to meet Christ’s requirement for kingdom living.

Christ’s example which used lilies of the field was part of the “Do Not Worry” section of the Sermon on the Mount (NIV-SB). Christ began this section by asking his hearers why they worried about clothes.  More than likely Christ was asking why they worried if they would have clothes to wearer rather than which outfit they were going to wear that day. Then, Christ gave the example of the field lilies, saying that King Solomon in his splendor – in all his beautifully-colored, rich garb — was not dressed like one of the lilies.  Christ ended the “Do Not Worry” portion of the Sermon on the Mountain by saying that God knows our need for clothes, food, and drink. If we first seek God’s kingdom and righteousness, then God will give to us everything else we need including clothes.     

When Christ used the example of lilies, he was not referring to the true lily (Lilium candidum) described with Hosea. He was referring to a flower that grew wild and abundant in the fields, was colorful, and known to most people in the crowd. 

The Anemone

The lily of the field that Christ described in the Sermon on the Mount was possibly Anemone coronaria, also known as the crown anemone, Palestine anemone, and windflower. The anemone is indigenous to southern European countries. It grows in every part of Israel from the northern Golan and Hermon area south through central valleys and hills to the far south at Eilat. Anemones are found along the Israel’s Mediterranean coastline. Anemone grows well in full sun to partial shade and average, well-drained soil. The more sun, the more water required for anemone to thrive; however, anemone do not respond well to constantly soggy soil.  Although anemones grow from seeds, they also propagate by forming bulbets or corms.

Symbolism:  Worry   

The Anemone coronaria has been associated with the Trinity, sorrow, and death; however, in the context of the Sermon on the Mountain, Christ is talking about worry.  Three times in the Matthew 6:25-34 passage, Christ told the people not to worry. He identified four things they should not worry about — their life, what they would eat and drink, and what they wear. Christ promised that God knows his children require these basic necessities and will see that they are met.

Later in Matthew, Christ gave his apostles instructions prior to sending them out in pairs to preach and to heal (Matthew 10:5-20). One directive was for the apostles not to worry about what they would say or how to say it when they were arrested and even flogged in the synagogues. In those times God would give the disciples the right words. The Spirit of the Father would speak through them.

Recently, Bruce and I were working in our garden transplanting flowers. After working about 1.5 hours, Bruce walked up a hill carrying a pan of chrysanthemums. I was walking behind him.  Suddenly, he dropped the pan, flailed his arms, and somersaulted backward down the hill dropping off of a rock wall. Immediately, I ran to him and found him unconscious. Our neighbor called 911. In a short time, Bruce was in the Emergency Department of our local hospital.  Initially, I was beyond worried, almost to panic. Then, my spirit became very calm. The calmness was the result of our very Christian neighbors praying for both of us. Later our church family joined these prayers. 

This incident made me realize that I do not have control of my life or my husband’s life. Health alterations can happen in a second. Worrying about basic needs such as food, clothing, and health does not change the need for them.  Worry does nothing but disturb an individual’s peace of mind as the same thoughts and concerns intrude into the mind, hour after hour and day after day. What changes life is taking our worries and anxieties to God in prayer and letting him give us back peace.

Reflection. In the sermon on the Mountain, Christ reassured the people that they were more valuable than birds, flowers, clothes, food, and water. Do you worry incessantly or do you live like you believe Christ’s words?

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright April 17, 2013; carolyn a. roth

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