Myrrh Tree and Resin

Bible References: Genesis 37.25; Esther 2.12; Psalm 48.8; Proverbs 7.17; Matthew 2.11; Revelation 18.13.

Myrrh use was recorded throughout the Bible. In Genesis, Joseph was sold to Ishmaelites, who included myrrh in their caravan traveling to Egypt. Esther completed a twelve-month beauty treatment with myrrh before she was taken to King Xerxes. Myrrh perfumed robes of a king  and the bed of an adulteress. Myrrh was catalogued seven times in Song of Songs to describe the Lover, the Maid (Bride), and Solomon’s gardens. In Revelation, John listed myrrh as a commodity no one would buy after Rome fell.

Despite the various times myrrh was identified in the Bible, three times stand out: The earliest is in Exodus. Myrrh was a component of anointing oil used in the tabernacle. This same anointing oil was used in the Temple in first-century Jerusalem when Jesus taught there. Second, myrrh was a gift that wise men brought Jesus at his birth. There, myrrh symbolized the deity of Jesus; he was the Son of God. Also, myrrh represented “gifts.” God gave his son as a gift to mankind. Thirty-three years after Jesus’s birth, Jesus gave his life as a gift for mankind. In turn, the gift that Jesus wants from each of us is that we belief in him as risen Savior. When we belief in Jesus as Savior, we accept God’s gift of his son and Jesus’s gift of his life. Third and finally, myrrh was used in Jesus’s burial. Following Jesus’s death, Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus wrapped Jesus’s body in linen saturated with myrrh and aloes. Then, they laid Jesus’s body in a tomb carved in rock.

The Myrrh Tree

New Testament myrrh was from a different plant than in the Old Testament. Most myrrh in the Roman Empire came from the Commiphora myrrha plant; however, in Israel the plant used to make myrrh was the C. abyssinica (C. habessinica, myrrh tree, Arabian myrrh, Yemen myrrh). Probably, the myrrh used by Nicodemus and Joseph was from the C. abyssinica plant, because it was readily available in Judah. The Hebrew word for myrrh is môr or môwr which means bitter because myrrh had a bitter taste.

Myrrh is a dried resin from myrrh trees. The myrrh tree is small, growing only up to twenty feet. The trunk (bole) can be as tall as thirteen feet. Myrrh trees have spiny branches and stems that grow at right-angles from stems. Stems end in sharp spines. Flowers are tiny and inconspicuous. One-or-two round fruits grow each stem; fruit are three-fourth to one-and-one-half inches long.

When myrrh resin is harvested, lateral cuts are made on tree trunks and larger branches. Aromatic gum resin seeps from cuts. When exposed to air, gum hardens forming irregular-shaped yellow or brown globules. Most sold myrrh has sharp-edges and is marble-sized.

Reflection: Because I am interested in Bible plants, I bought a few jars of myrrh resin. The myrrh smelled pleasant; however, I never tasted it. The myrrh just stays in the jar in my closet. I don’t use it to perfume my home. I guess, we could compare my myrrh to a Bible that just lies on a desk or even beside a chair. The Bible never gets opened.

Copyright July 1, 2019; Carolyn A. Roth

Consequences of Sin

Book Description: Disobedience has consequences. When ancient Israelites disobeyed God’s statutes, their land was overrun by foreign enemies. They were exiled from their homeland. Prophets attempted to warn them what was going to occur; however, both kings and commoners ignored warnings. Disobedience to God’s laws wasn’t confined to Israelites 2000-3000 years ago. Americans ignore God’s laws and commit the same sins as ancient Israelites, i.e., idolatry, burglary, slavery.  I don’t think that God has one standard and one outcome for Israelites and another for us. This book uses plants to point out the sins of ancient Israel just like ancient prophets used plants to make their point.

What People are Saying:

Dr. Roth tackles this elusive topic courageously confronting the plants most gardeners dread. The result? She rewards curiosity with much to ponder, turning the thorns, thistles, briers, and cohorts into a poignant prickling of conscious and deeper dig into God’s word.” Shelley S. Cramm, God’s Word for Gardeners, NIV Bible

“What a book! Whoever would have thought that meaningful Biblical instruction could be found by examining plant life. Leave it to Dr. Carolyn Roth to research this easily overlooked aspect of biblical teaching and bring to light numerous lessons of Godly living. If you are looking for a truly innovative and interesting way to gain spiritual insight, this book is it.”  John Domalski, Lay Minister, St. John Lutheran Church, Roanoke, VA

Can be purchased on Amazon as a paperback or electronic copy or as a paperback at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com

 

Old Age Plant

Bible References: Ecclesiastes chapter 12.

The caper plant is a relatively obscure Bible plant, identified only in Ecclesiastes. Ecclesiastes was written by a Jewish sage who named himself, “Teacher.” In poetic and allegorical form, the Teacher elaborated how age takes its toll on a man, reducing him to feebleness. One piece of advice was “remember your Creator in the days of your youth before the days of trouble come and the years approach when you will say, ‘I have no pleasure in them’” (Ecclesiastes 12.1 NIV).

A characteristic of old age is reduced desire or appetite for sex, food, and other stimulation. In Hebrew the word for desire is ҆ abȋyôwnâh, which translates as caper berry.6 The caper berry is an   appetite stimulant and aphrodisiac; yet, desire (caper) fails to have an effect on a man whose powers are exhausted or worn out.

The caper berry is the Capparis spinosa, known as the common caper. Caper bushes are evergreen and tolerate drought.  A rule of thumb is that the caper plant grows wherever the olive tree grows. In Israel, the  caper berry clings to cracks and crevices of rock piles and abandoned walls. It grows between rocks of the Western (Wailing) Wall in Jerusalem.

The caper bush is a sprawling, spiny, evergreen shrub that typically grows three-feet tall, and spreads (horizontally) by semi-prostrate branching as much as six-to-ten feet. The caper bush develops a pair of sharp hooked spines at the base of each leaf stem. When capers and caperberries are harvested, hands are easily scratched and clothing can catch on hooked spines.

The caper plant produces several edible products. Both the  caper and the caperberry are used in cooking. Capers are unopen buds of the caper bush. The commercial caper is an immature flower bud that is pickled in vinegar or preserved in granulated salt. The taste of capers  has been described both as sharply piquant and peppery mustard. Caper buds are used to garnish food (pizza, fish), and are added to pizza sauce.

While capers are immature flower buds of the bush, caperberries are fruits the bush produces once buds have flowered and fertilized. Caperberries are about the size of a grape or olive and often harvested with stems attached. They are cured in vinegar just like capers. Caperberries (cornichon de câpres) are the semi-mature caper fruit and are used as a condiment. I’ve read that young caper shoots can be eaten as a vegetable; however, I don’t remember ever eating one.

The symbolism of the caperberry is desire. A desire is a wish, craving, or longing for something or someone. Synonyms are yearning, wanting, and needing.3 The Teacher made the point that with old age desires were blunted or reduced. Contemplating this passage, leads me to believe that some desires may be reduced so that we have an opportunity to concentrate on other desires.  It’s possible that the intensity or urgency of sexual desires are muted. We become less adventurous (I no longer desire to paraglide). That doesn’t mean that overall desire is lost as much as desires change or are re-focused. Decades of living allows us to acquire experiences and knowledge. An Israelite proverb is “desire without knowledge is not good” (Proverbs 19.2 NIV).

God doesn’t view age as a deterrent to usefulness. Not until Abraham was seventy-five years-of-age did he leave Haran in response to God’s call.  Moses was eighty-years-old when God appeared to him at Mount Horab.

Desires can cause problems for individuals. Cain’s offering of fruit was unacceptable to God. Cain became angry and his face downcast. God loved Cain, so he explained that a suitable sacrifice would be accepted. Then, God warned Cain that sin was crouching at Cain’s door and “desired” to have Cain. Cain’s fruit, grains, or vegetables weren’t what God wanted in a sacrifice. Perhaps, God wanted the best or first fruits from Cain’s harvest and the best wasn’t what Cain offered to God. Perhaps, God wanted an animal sacrifice, similar to Abel’s offering. More probably, God just wanted Cain to acknowledged that all he reaped was from God. God told the Israelites, “I desire mercy, not sacrifice, and acknowledgement of God rather than burnt offerings” (Hosea 6.6 NIV).

Saint John counseled Christians that things of the world – the desires of the flesh and of the eyes and the pride of life – aren’t from God  The world is passing away along with all desires; but, whoever does the Lord’s will abides forever.

Reflection: In this poem on old age, the Teacher described the elder as being afraid of many things. Many of us are afraid of things in the world, i.e., muggings, burglary, taxes. I’m afraid of the toxic political climate. Yet, the world is temporal and guaranteed to pass away. Further, God promised to fulfill desires of those who fear him.

Copyright: July 2, 2019; Carolyn A. Roth

Red Geraniums

The mention of geraniums typically conjures up images of bright red blooms against rich green foliage adorning window boxes and porch railings. You may be surprised to learn that there are hundreds of species of geraniums that range in size, shape and color. The common geranium comes in shades of white, red and pink with many striking bi-colors, too.

What Does the Geranium Flower Mean?

The geranium flower appears to have some conflicting meanings, which means you must rely on both the circumstances and their color to refine their meaning. Some of the most common meanings are:

  • Folly or Stupidity
  • Gentility
  • Ingenuity
  • Melancholy
  • Bridal Favor
  • Unexpected Meeting
  • Expected Meeting
  • Preference
  • True Friendship

Burning Bush Plant

Bible Reference: Exodus chapter 3.

Under a death sentence in Egypt, Moses fled to Midian. There, he married and became a shepherd for his father-in-law’s flocks. After about forty years in Midian, Moses led a flock to the west side of the Midian desert, arriving at Mount Horab in the Sinai Peninsula.

Moses noticed that a bush was on fire, but the bush wasn’t consumed by the fire. Moses walked toward the burning bush. From the bush, God called and told Moses to come no closer. God instructed Moses to take off his sandals because Moses was standing on holy ground. Then, God introduced himself to Moses, naming himself the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Speaking from the burning bush, God told Moses that Israelites were suffering severely under slave masters in Egypt. Then, God stunned Moses by saying, “So now, go. I am sending you to Pharaoh to bring my people the Israelites out of Egypt” (Exodus 3.10 NIV).

The Plant

The burning bush is a source of debate among botanists and Biblical scholars. Some believe that it wasn’t an actual bush, but a figurative representation of a supernatural phenomenon. Others contend that God spoke through a natural bush. The opinion of some Jewish scholars and botanists is that the burning bush was the blackberry bush, Rubus sanctus (R. sanguineus), named the holy blackberry.

The blackberry bush is a bramble. The plant produces long, thin branches which can reach five-to-six feet in length. Branches have spiked thorns that bend downward. When individuals reach into the bramble to pick fruit, they don’t feel thorns; however, when they withdraw hands, thorns fasten into flesh. Initially, black berries are green. As fruits ripen, they turn red, then black. Fully-ripened blackberries are plump, firm, and black.

The Meaning, Symbolism

Sanctus is a symbol of God revealing himself to mankind. “Reveal” means to make known something that was secret or hidden, and to open up to view.3 Synonyms of reveal are disclose and tell. In the entire Old Testament, nowhere does God reveal more about himself to one man than in the burning bush passage. In fact, this passage is sometimes called the “Mosaic revelation of God about himself.”

Some of the truths that God revealed about himself were:

1. God was the God of Moses’s ancestors, i.e., Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. God remembered Moses’s ancestors and promises he made to them more than 400 years earlier. God doesn’t forget.

2. God heard cries and saw the agony of Israelites slaves in Egypt. God isn’t limited to one land area, such as, Haran or Canaan, where God appeared to Moses’s ancestors. God hears the cries of his people wherever they were. The Bible didn’t identify that Israelite cries were prayers, but, God heard them.

3. God was going to act on behalf of Israelites. God cared about his chosen people so much that he was willing to intervene in history to help them.

4.God had a plan to see that his promises to Moses’s ancestors were kept. God is a God of specifics and details. Part of that plan was for Moses to be the Israelite leader.

5. God knew the opposition that Moses would face from Pharaoh. God knew Pharaoh’s pride and stubbornness. God knows the hearts of each individual man and woman.

6. God takes other forms. In this instance he talked to Moses from a burning bush. God revealed his power by telling Moses that the “supposed” power of the gods of the greatest nation on earth, Egypt, would be no obstacle to God’s will and plan. Appearing in a burning bush demonstrated God’s power to Moses.

Reflection: Pondering attributes that God revealed about himself, makes me glad that God is on my side. At the same time, I feel overwhelmed that God who is all powerful (omnipotent), all knowledge (omniscient), and always present (omnipresent) claimed me for his child. I understand why Moses hid his face in God’s presence. He didn’t want God to see him and he was afraid to look on God. What are you going to do when God reveals himself totally to you?

Copyright: July 1, 2019; Carolyn A. Roth

Zillah, Wife of a Murderer and Plant

Bible Reference: Genesis chapter 4.

In the offspring of Cain, Lamech, a seventh-generation grandson of Adam, had two wives simultaneously.  This is the first time that plural wives were identified in the Bible.  Lamech’s second wife was named Zillah.

Although we know little about Zillah, we know that her husband was a murderer. He admitted to his wives that he murdered a young man for injuring him. Lamech averred that if God planned to take sevenfold vengeance on anyone killing Cain, then he, Lamech, should be avenged seventy-seven times. Contemplating Lamech’s words, readers aren’t sure whether he is bragging about his actions or admitting his wrong. Whichever Lamech was doing, most certainly  Zillah, reaped  consequences.

The Plant

Zillah was named after a spiny, woody shrub (Zilla spinosa) that grows in deserts, to include extreme desert, regions.7  Stems can grow up to five feet. The zilla grows as wide as tall, so that the plant appears rounded. Stem and spine color are bluish-gray. Fruit resembles chickpeas (garbanzo beans). When mature, the plant  loosens from soil. Winds blow it across the desert similar to a tumbleweed in western United States.

In contrast to the overall unpleasant stems and spines, Zilla spinosa produces a four-petal lavender, occasionally pink, flower. I imagine that Zillah was named after the lovely flower rather than after the spiny plant. Alternatively, Zillah could have been named after the rounded appearance of the Z. spinosa.

Symbolism, Interpretation

The website, Flowers in Israel,7 named Ezekiel’s brier as the zilla plant: “No longer will the people of Israel have malicious neighbors who are painful briers and sharp thorns. Then they will know that I am the Sovereign LORD” (Ezekiel 28.24 NIV). Ezekiel’s complete prophecy against Sidon is in Ezekiel 28.20-26. Sidon was a  Phoenician city.  Originally, Sidon was included in the inheritance of the tribe of Asher, but Asher didn’t conquer it. Sidon  gloated when Jerusalem was destroyed by Babylon.

One word that encompassed the story of Zillah in Genesis and Ezekiel’s prophecy against Sidon is malicious. Malicious means a desire to cause pain, distress, or injury to another.3 Maliciously, Lamech  injured a young man in the process of murdering him. Most likely, Lamech’s action caused distress to the young man’s family and distress to his wife, Zillah. Sidon’s gloat over Judah’s pain, injury, and distress was malicious. I can just imagine Sidonians rubbing their hands together and laughing when Jerusalem fell.

The take-away message from the Zilla spinosa is that beautiful flowers may occur simultaneously with spines which cause injury. Importantly, we can stop pondering how loved ones hurt us and reframe our thinking: How do we, although beautiful individuals, injure and distress others with our words and behavior?

Reflection: A dear friend told me recently that a mutual friend’s words hurt. At about the same time, the mutual friend shared that she was hurt by my dear friend’s words. I need to always look at my own words and behavior and make sure that I don’t cause pain, injury, or distress to others. Do you find it easier to criticize others than to take accountability for what you do?

Copyright: July, 1, 2019; Carolyn Adams Roth

Please see my website http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com to purchase about bad plants in the good book.

Bachelor’s in the Bible

This is a flower grown from seeds on my back porch. It is called a Bachelor’s button (Centaurea cyanus) and cornflower. Although it grows in Europe and the United States, I am not sure if it ever grew in the Middle East. Its colors are purple, blue, and pink.

I have been attempting to name bachelor’s in the Bible. In the Old Testament, Abel may have been a bachelor. Definitely, Jeremiah was a bachelor.

In the New Testament: Jesus was a bachelor as was John the Baptist. Can you think of any other Bible characters who were bachelors?

Bachelor men and women contributed to the spread of Christ’s kingdom.

Reflection: If God has called you to an unmarried state in life, identify ways that you can honor God in your bachelorhood.

Copyright July 30, 2019; Carolyn A. Roth