Sowing Weeds

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Christ’s Parable of  Weeds in a Wheat Field is in Matthew 13:24-30.

Christ was seated by the Lake of Galilee when he told The Parable of the Weeds (Matthew 13:1).  The parable is one of six parables that Christ used to demonstrate the nature of the kingdom of heaven. Here is the parable: A farmer planted good wheat seeds in his field. “Good” wheat seeds meant that contaminants, e.g. weeds, wild oats, and chaff, are absent from the wheat seeds. At night the farmer’s enemy sowed weeds or tares among the wheat. When the wheat sprouted and formed heads, so did the weeds. The weeds were intermingled with the wheat.

A servant told the owner about the weeds. He asked the owner if he and the other servants should pull out the weeds. The owner said “No” and explained that when the servants pull out the weeds, they could inadvertently pull up the wheat. The farmer understood that weed and wheat roots planted near each other intertwined. If weeds are removed, wheat roots and stems would be pulled up or damaged. The farmer directed the servant to let both wheat and weeds grow together until the harvest. Then, the servants could go through the fields, pull and bundle the weeds, and burn them. Wheat would be harvested and taken into the owner’s barn.

The parable demonstrated the growth of the kingdom of heaven from its original planting, through growth, to harvest. The field is the world. God, the owner, sowed good seed; individuals who were destined to follow him. The devil, the enemy, sowed weeds into the field; individuals who were against or indifferent to God’s teachings. The servants are God’s angels.  God refused to allow the angels to remove the weeds from the world because the lives (roots) of rejecters and followers are intertwined, just like the roots of weeds and wheat. 

Harvest represented the second coming of Christ. At that time, the angels are free to remove the weeds.  God rejecters will be collected like the weeds they are. They will be bundled and burned.  Then, the angels will gather God’s followers. These good plants will be brought into the storehouse of God.

Weeds, Darnel

The weed referred to in the Parable of the Weed was most likely the Lolium temulentum. This weed is also known as darnel and poison ryegrass. The darnel is indigenous to the Mediterranean region including the Middle East. Darnel infests wheat fields and other cultivated land and spreads as a contaminant of wheat. It is widely distributed in Israel to include Mediterranean woodlands and shrublands, shrub-steppes and deserts to include extreme deserts. Even a few darnel grains can adversely affect crop Lolium temulentum var. arvensequality. Darnel seeds are poisonous to people and livestock.

Symbolism: Malice, Malicious

The enemy who sowed the weeds among the good wheat was malicious. His behavior was spiteful, mean, and malevolent.  He wanted to destroy the good wheat that the farmer was growing. An Old Testament proverb focused on maliciousness:  “A malicious man disguised himself with his lips, but in his heart he harbors deceit. Though his speech is charming do not believe him ….. His malice may be concealed by deception, but his wickedness will be exposed in the assembly” (Proverbs 26:24-27). The proverb also teaches us how to respond to a malicious man and his ultimate outcome.   

The New Testament is contains instruction to avoid malicious behavior (Table 12.1). Christ told his disciples that what goes into a man does not make him unclean (Mark 7:17-23). Rather, what is inside and comes out determines whether a man is clean or unclean. If a person’s heart is clean, good things will come out of them. Unfortunately, if a person’s heart is unclean, he will think and spew forth all kinds of unclean words, such as evil thoughts, malice, and deceit.  Similarly, an unclean heart produces unclean living, e.g., sexual immorality, adultery, theft, murder.   

St. Paul addressed malice and malicious talk repeatedly in letters to early churches and in letters to his young protégé Timothy. Notably, Paul and Peter were both writing to believers. These two saints were exhorting believers to set aside spiteful, mean, and malevolent words. Malice can be harmful to a church; e.g., Paul wrote that a potential deacon’s wife must “not be a malicious talker” (I Timothy 3:11). Despite man’s excellent traits, e.g., sincere, temperate, honest, if his wife is a malicious talker, then the man is disqualified to be a deacon. Believers – men, women, and children – must all be attuned to what comes out of their mouths.

Table 12.1, Directions to refute maliciousness

Speaker

Direction

Scripture

Christ to his disciples

These thoughts/behaviors make a person unclean: evil thoughts, sexual immorality, theft, murder, adultery, greed, malice, deceit, lewdness, envy, slander, arrogance, and folly

Mark 7:20-23

Paul to the Ephesus church

Get rid of all bitterness, rage and anger, brawling and slander, along with every form of malice.

Ephesians 4:31

Paul to the Colosse church

Rid yourself of these things: anger, rage, malice, slander, and filthy language from your lips.

Colossians 3: 8

Paul to Timothy about deacon’s wives

Wives of church deacons should be women worthy of respect, not malicious talkers, but temperate and trustworthy in everything.

I Timothy 3:11

Paul to Timothy

Paul warns that a man who teaches false doctrines and does not accept sound instruction is conceited and understands nothing.  He has an unhealthy interest in controversies, quarrels about words that end in envy, strife, malicious talk, evil suspicions, and constant friction between men of corrupt minds.

I Timothy 6:3-5

Peter to Christians in Asia Minor

Rid yourselves of all malice and all deceit, hypocrisy, envy, and slander of any kind.

I Peter 2:1

Reflection. In a way, it is good that the heart and our words are so closely aligned. Hearing our own malicious words can be a clue that there is something wrong with our hearts. Do you take the time to reflect on what you say?

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

copyright June 6, 2013; Carolyn A. Roth

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Captured by Seaweed

macrocystis-pyrifera-1

Reference: Jonah 2:5

The story of Jonah is about disobedience and redemption. Most children know that Jonah disobeyed God when God told him to go to Nineveh and preach repentance to the city. Jonah didn’t want to go there, so he got on a ship bound for Tarshish in the opposite direction from Nineveh. Jonah believed that if he left the land of the Israelites, he could escape God.

A huge storm occurred in the Mediterranean Sea. Even the experienced sailors were frightened. They decided to cast lots to see who had disobeyed their god and brought the storm on them. The lot fell to Jonah. He admitted that he was disobeying God and recommended that the sailors throw him overboard. Reluctantly, the ship’s sailors threw Jonah overboard. Once Jonah was off the ship, the storm abated, and the ship proceeded on its way.

A large fish swallowed Jonah. Jonah’s prayed and called out to God while he was in the belly of the giant fish. Later Jonah wrote about the experience (Jonah chapter 2) so we read what happened to him and what he thought. Jonah described how the sea waters closed over him and sea weeds wrapped around his head.  Jonah noted that he was at the roots of the mountains in the ocean suggesting that he fell to the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea.  Jonah remained in the belly of the fish three days. Then, the fish vomited up Jonah onto dry land. (Ugh, I bet he was slimy). The land was on the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea, not all that far from Nineveh. When Jonah went to Nineveh and preached repentance, the Ninevehites repented.

Sea Weed

The Bible referenced seaweed only once (Jonah 2:5, NIV). Although the New International Version translated the plant that wrapped around Jonah’s head as seaweed, other sources translated it as “weed” (ESV) or as “eelgrass” (Douglas & Tenney, 2011). I have a problem with the translation of eelgrass because eelgrass is generally confined to tidal water and grows out to a water depth of 35 feet.  A close reading of Jonah chapter 1 suggested that the ship Jonah was on was away from land and out into the Mediterranean Sea when the storm hit.

My research indicates that the seaweed referred to by Jonah may have been the Macrocystis pyrifera also known as brown seaweed. It is a marine alga and known as the Sequoia of the sea because it can grow 45 meters (about 147 foot) in length.  It grows in the Mediterranean Sea. The stalks are thin and readily float through the waters. It could have easily wrapped around Jonah’s neck. Currently, it is eaten as a good source of minerals.

brown-kelp

Symbolism:  Captured

Perhaps the type of plant is not as important as what it symbolized. The sea weed captured Jonah. Capture means catching, winning, or gaining control by force. Capture is exactly what the seaweed did to Jonah. He was captured so that the giant fish could swallow him.

I have been captured, or caught, by Christ and I am so glad. Now, I have to stop struggling and let God control my life.  The problem, or perhaps not so much a problem, is that God won’t control me by force. Bummer, I wish God would just “make” me do the right things. But, He doesn’t operate that way. I have to willingly give my life to Him.  That is really difficult for me to do because I have been used to controlling my own life and future.  You know:  “I am a self- made woman.” “I can do it myself.”

Reflection: What about you? Are you willing to let God capture you? Will you willing and totally yield to God?

Copyright: January 5, 2017; Carolyn A. Roth

Please visit my website for other information: www.CarolynRothMinistry.com

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Poisonous weed in the Bible

Picture

(Black henbane)

Bible Reference: Hosea 10.5.

Hosea was a prophet in the Northern Kingdom, composed of the ten northern tribes of Israel that separated from Judah. Almost immediately these Northern Kingdom tribes began to worship idols. Hosea attempted to win them from their idolatry. Despite his words and those of other prophets, most individuals and kings of the Northern Kingdom ignored fair dealings outlined by Moses. Many acted dishonestly. Consequently, Hosea told them:

“They make many promises, take false oaths and make agreement; therefore, lawsuits spring up like poisonous weeds in a plowed field” (Hosea 10.5 NIV).

In Holy Lands, there are several other plants that are poisonous and grow in cultivated fields.  Israeli botanist, Michael Zohary, identified species of Hyoscyamus as poisonous plants. Hyoscyamus grows in very dry areas, such as in plowed fields in most of Israel.  In Israel, the most common henbane is golden henbane (H. aureus), which grows from between rocks on the Western Wall (Wailing Wall).

Hyoscyamus is a  small genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The henbane plant is toxic to mankind if consumed, breathed, or contacted. The plant is deemed so poisonous that the smell of flowers can cause dizziness. If consumed in large quantities, henbane plants may cause extremely high blood pressure, coma, and convulsions. Because breathing the flower causes hallucinations, some cultures use henbane as a recreational drug.

(golden henbane)

When farmers see the henbane in a plowed field, they remove plants immediately. Because the henbane has characteristics of parsley, parsnips, and wild carrots, children have eaten it.

Henbane has a long taproot; consequently, surface plowing, as was done in ancient Israel, couldn’t remove the entire taproot. Attempting to pull the henbane didn’t always have a positive result. Henbane tops break off when pulled from dry soil, but roots remain in the soil and regrow. Eradicating the poisonous henbane weed from a field was difficult in ancient Israel. Today, westernized gardeners and farmers rely on herbicides to kill the henbane plant.

Just as henbane continued to grow in a plowed field and had the potential to poison livestock and man, the effects of false promises and oaths haunted and eventually destroyed the Northern Kingdom.  In shorter than fifty years (c. 721 BC) after Hosea’s prophecy, the Northern Kingdom fell to the Assyrian army.

Reflection: The Hebrew word for henbane is shikkeron (shikrona). One definition of shikkeron is “intoxication.” Was there a message in naming the henbane “intoxication” that descendants of  Israelite immigrants into Canaan should have contemplated and applied to their lives in this “new world?” What message should we living in the United States take from a Bible plant named shikkeron?

Copyright 12/18/19: Carolyn A. Roth

Please visit my website for more information on plants in the Bible: http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com

Tumbleweed Action

Bible References: Psalm 83.13; Isaiah 17.13.

Two Bible citations named the tumbleweed. One was in Isaiah. There, Isaiah gave a prophecy (oracle) against Damascus. Damascus was the capital city in the kingdom of Aram. Isaiah noted that although the Arameans roared like surging water, when God rebukes them they are driven like a tumbleweed before the wind. Isaiah’s prophecy came true: Assyria defeated Arameans and overran their capital in 732 BC. Often, God used other kingdoms and nations as instruments of retribution.

Despite Isaiah being the most read and often most quoted Old Testament prophet, the tumbleweed description in Psalm 83 resonates with many Christians. This Psalm is a prayer attributed to Asaph; however, possibly he was the ancestor of the actual writer. The content of Psalm 83 indicates it may have been written in the years immediately before the Babylonian Exile. Psalm 83 is more an urgent prayer than a song. Asaph pleaded with God to treat Israel’s foes like tumbleweeds, a very unimportant landscape plant.

Psalm 83 takes the same form as several other psalms. First, the present situation is defined (verses 1-4). Second, the Lord is reminded how he gave victory to Israelites in similar situations in the past (verses 5-12). Finally, a specific request for help is outlined (verses 13-18).

Situation defined: God’s people (Israelites) were threatened by enemies. If God doesn’t defend them, they will be destroyed completely. The psalmist named ten nations who allied themselves against God’s chosen: Edom, Ishmaelites, Moab, Hagrites, Byblos, Ammon, Amalek, Philistia, Tyreans and Assyrians. Asaph pleaded for Israel’s safety in a way that made Israel’s circumstances God’s challenge. Asaph referred to Israel’s foes as God’s enemies, those who hated God and God’s people. According to Asaph, these ten nations formed an alliance against God.

Past victories from God: Asaph reminded God that he gave Israel victory over Canaanites (Jabin and Sisera) at the Kishon River. When the Midianites attempted to co-opt Israelites pastures, God gave Israel the ability to drive them out and kill their kings, Zebah and Zalmunna.

Request for help: Asaph pleads with God to destroy—blow away—enemy kingdoms who want to destroy God’s chosen people. Specifically, Asaph wrote, “make them like tumbleweed, O my God, like chaff before the wind” (Psalm 83.13 NIV).

The Plant

The Bible tumbleweed is identified as the Gundelia tournefortii, sometimes called a tumble thistle. Israeli botanists use the Hebrew name, galgal, while Arabs call it the a’kub.7 Although technically a thistle, the rolling nature of this moveable plant is key to both the Isaiah and Psalm reference. Tumbleweeds grow in wastelands and along roadsides from Mount Hermon and Golan in the north to the Negev hills and Eilat in the south. Tumbleweeds don’t grow well in the shade.

The tumbleweed fruit is a seed. After the fruit forms, thistle stems separate from roots. Because the tumbleweed is round, it rolls like a ball when driven by the wind. Seeds of dead fruits are dispersed by the rolling motion. Currently, young flower heads are removed and sold in Palestinian Authority markets where they supplement food of local people. Mature plants are used as camel fodder.

Symbolism of Tumbleweed

Action is the process of doing something in order to achieve a purpose.3 Synonyms are battle, and prosecute. God’s action was central in both places that tumbleweeds were named in the Bible. In Psalm 83.13 the psalmist pleaded for God to act, i.e., make Israel’s enemies like tumbleweeds in the wind. Isaiah (17.13) prophesied God’s action on behalf of Judah.

Asaph’s motivation for asking God to act on behalf of Israelites wasn’t only for the security of Israel, but for worldwide acknowledgement of God as the true God. Acknowledgment of God includes seeking God to learn about him, his teachings, and his commands.

Christians shouldn’t pray Psalm 83 against national enemies because Christianity is broader than national boundaries. Christians are the world-wide fellowship of believers. A Christian shouldn’t pray for the downfall of another. Christians can pray Psalm 83 against foes who act to destroy them and all traces of their faith.17 They can ask God to defeat these enemies’ plans in a way that persecutors seek and know God and accept Jesus as Savior.

A number of years ago, I was part of a large congregation attempting to buy our church property from the diocese. The diocese kept pushing the time back for final notification and sale closing. Church members became more anxious every day, then every hour. Quietly, our minister reminded us, “God is rarely early, but he is never late.”

Reflection: When we accept Jesus as our Savior, God accepts us as his children. That promise requires God to act on our behalf. Sometimes we want God, “to do something NOW!”  God’s action isn’t always according to our timetable.

Copyright July 13, 2019; Carolyn A. Roth

Stinkweed in the Bible! Really??

Bible Reference: Job 31.38-40.

Stinkweed was identified by Job. From what twenty-first century Christians can discern, Job was a contemporary of Abraham. Job lived in Uz. Uz was east of the Jordan River. Because Job was familiar with large sea creatures, he may have lived in the region of the present-day Gulf of Aqaba.

When introduced, Job is healthy, wealthy, and otherwise blessed with beautiful daughters and handsome sons. He worships God; all is right in his world. Then, in a short time, his children are killed and flocks destroyed. Later, his health deteriorates. Apparently, Job’s wife wasn’t harmed. We learn that these calamities were brought about by Satan. God allowed them in order to show Job’s dedication to him.

When friends visited Job, they contended that Job’s losses were from God in payment for Job’s sins. Job defended himself against their accusations. In Job’s final defense, Job concurred that calamities were from God; yet, Job  attempted to vindicate himself. Some of Job’s words focused on stewardship of his land:

If my land cries out against me, and all its furrows   are wet with tears,  if I have   devoured its yield without payment or broken the spirit of its tenants, then let briars grow instead of wheat, and stink weed instead of barley” (Job 31.38-40 NIV).

Some readers have questioned whether or not stinkweed is a specific plant. Both the New International Version Bible translation and the New American Bible19 used the word “stinkweed. Apparently, stinkweed was an identifiable weed that grew in grain fields. Alternatively, the English Standard Version Study Bible17 offered the translation as “foul weeds.” I contacted well-regarded botanists in Israel and questioned if Job chapter forty named a specific weed (stinkweed) or used the word “stink” as an adjective, i.e., foul, noxious, stinking. Those Israeli colleagues responded that in their opinions “stink” was a descriptor, more than a specific type of weed.

The Plant

In the King James Bible, stinkweed is translated as “cockle.” Cockle is the plant associated with stinkweed in the  Zondervan Illustrated Bible Dictionary. This dictionary averred that cockles grow in Palestinian grain fields.

The cockle is the  Agrostemma githago, Present day farmers and gardeners call the plant “corn cockle,” possibly, because it grows in corn and grain fields. The corn cockle is a weed which grew among grain crops for millennia. As you see in the image of the corn cockle, the flower is a beautiful pink and leaves a pleasant green. Possibly, cockles grew in Uz.

The entire cockle plant, especially seeds, contain poisonous compounds which spoil flour if they aren’t removed. When cockle-contaminated flour is eaten, flour products  taste bad and cause nausea, even death if eaten in large quantities. Corn cockle grows in dry fields and waste ground as well as in cultivated soil. Clearly, Job’s plowed furrows were a good place for corn cockle to grow. Whether translated as stinkweed or a stinking weed, corn cockle is an appropriate weed for identification with Job’s comments.

Reflection: The choices we make in our lives—to remove weeds or not—have long-term effects. Sometimes those effects are life-and-death ones. At other times, they are less dire. St. Paul offered a rule of thumb for early Christian decision making. He wrote, “let nothing be done through strife or vainglory; but in lowliness of mind let each esteem others better than themselves” (Philippians 2.3).

Copyright July 13, 2019; Carolyn Adams Roth

Myrrh, An Epiphany Gift

From FlowersinIsrael

Christians associate myrrh with the birth of Jesus (Matthew 2:11). Myrrh was one of the gifts that the Persian magi brought to Jesus at his birth. In the Church calendar, we are in the season of Epiphany. Epiphany begins on January 6 and last until Ash Wednesday; thus, it is as long as 8 weeks depending on when Ash Wednesday fall in the Church calendar. Epiphany is about the Gentiles recognizing Christ as savior of the world. The Maji brought Christ gold, frankincense, and myrrh. By tradition, gold symbolized Christ’s kingship, frankincense his deity, and myrrh his death.

Different species of plants were used to make myrrh in different countries. The myrrh described in the Old Testament was likely a different plant from the New Testament myrrh. Most myrrh in Imperial Rome came from the Commiphora myrrha plant; however, in Israel the plant used to make myrrh was the Commiphora abyssinica plant. Arguably, John thought of Judean myrrh when he referred to myrrh in Revelation.

The Plant Myrrh

The Israelite myrrh plant is the Commiphora abyssinica, which has several other names, to include Commiphora habessinica, myrrh tree, Arabian myrrh, and Yeman myrrh. The Hebrew word for myrrh is môr or môwr which means bitter, possibly because myrrh has a bitter taste. The Israeli myrrh was indigenous to Ethiopia, or possibly Southern Arabia and Yemen. As early as 1900 B.C. caravans carried myrrh to Egypt where it was used in the embalming process. Around 1876-1880 B.C., Jacob described myrrh as one of the best products of Canaan and directed his sons to take myrrh to Egypt to trade for grain (Genesis 43:11-14). In present day Israel, the myrrh tree grows in the Biblical Landscape Reserve (Neot Kedumim).

The myrrh plant is a shrub or small tree that grows 20 feet tall with a trunk that can be as tall as 13 feet. In Israel, myrrh trees grow as a woody perennial. Although often referred to as a spice, myrrh is the dried resin from the myrrh tree. When the resin is harvested, lateral cuts are made on the trunk or branches. An aromatic gum resin exudes from the wounds. When the resin is exposed to the air, the gum hardens forming irregular shaped yellow or brown globules. The globules smell pleasant but have a bitter taste.

We saw myrrh in the bazaar in the old city of Jerusalem. The myrrh was in sharp-edged, marble-size pieces. Myrrh continues to be used today as sweet-smelling incense for religious celebrations.

Oil of Myrrh*

Known as the Oil of Mother Earth, the smoky herbaceous aroma of myrrh is rather unique. Due to its versatility and effectiveness, myrrh has been valuable for centuries across many cultures. Anciently myrrh was used for incense, perfume, in burials and as medicine. Though much time has passed, myrrh is still used in today’s modern-day world. It is often used to reduce anxious & sad feelings, support healthy hormones, the immune system, and the skin.

Its powerful cleansing properties are often use in oral hygiene. When added to lotions/moisturizers, myrrh promotes a smooth youthful complexion and helps to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.  Since myrrh effects hormones, new and expecting mothers should take special precautions before using it.

Aromatic use of this woody essential oil uplifts mood, promotes awareness and is very calming to the soul. The aroma of myrrh is rather unique and blends well with spicy, floral and citrus oils such as Frankincense, Cinnamon, Lavender, Lemon or Juniper Berry.  Myrrh can also support and ease issues related to the digestive system.

So whether you want to promote emotional balance, promote smooth, youthful-looking skin, or support and cleanse the body, Myrrh still holds limitless uses for everyday life. Myrrh, it is truly a gift fit for a King!

Reflection: What do you do when you receive a gift? Have you ever been embarrassed by a gift and not wanted to claim it? What is your response to the ultimate gift from God — his Son?

Copyright: December 30, 2017 Carolyn A. Roth. All rights reserved.

  • Information supplied by Linda Sable, Wellness Advocate DoTerra Essential Oils

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God 2 and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/ or on Amazon. Rooted in God 2 is now in electronic format from Kindle.

Christmas Holly = Holy

 

weary-world-rejoices

It’s Christmas, it’s Christmas. Time for holly. These pictures are of the beautiful American holly tree (Ilex opaca) that grows in the southeastern United States. This one is in the St. John Church Bible Garden. It is evergreen. These pictures were taken on December 12 when the temperature is freezing at night. My friend told me that he goes out in the church garden, cuts springs from the holly trees, and uses them for garland in his home. I think that the holly tree is happy to be used in this way.

Don’t confuse this tree with the holm tree in the Bible. That tree is an evergreen oak (Quercus ilex). Both species take their name from the pointed leaves.

1-DSC06906

If you want to grow holly trees you need a male and a female. Only the female tree produces beautiful red berries.

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A Christmas carol is The Holly and The Ivy.

Reflection: When I see, or hear, the word holly, I always think of holy. God is holy–pure, just, kind, bright–and I am not. If I were holy, I would want to be like the colors of the holly tree, e.g., vibrant, pleasing to look at, even colorful. I would want people to look at me and smile, as I do when I look at a holly tree.

I love Bible plants along with their symbolism. If you want to learn more about them, read my two books: 1) Rooted in God and 2) God as a Gardener. You can purchase them from my website: Carolyn Roth Ministry at http://www.CarolynRothMinistry.com/

Copyright: December 13, 2015; Carolyn A. Roth

 

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